• 1
    Savage DC. Mucosal Microbiota. In: OgraPL, MesteckyJ, LammME, StroberW, BienenstockJ, McGheeJR, eds. Mucosal Immunology. San Diego: Academic Press, 1999: 1930.
  • 2
    MacDonald TT, Monteleone G, Pender SLF. Recent developments in the immunology of inflammatory bowel disease. Scand J Immunol 2000; 51: 29.
  • 3
    Cong YZ, Brandwein SL, McCabe RP et al. CD4+ T cells reactive to enteric bacterial antigens in spontaneously colitic C3H/HeJBir mice. Increased T helper cell type 1 response and ability to transfer disease. J Exp Med 1998; 187: 85564.
  • 4
    Duchmann R, Kaiser I, Hermann E, Mayet W, Ewe K, Meyer-zum Buschenfelde KH. Tolerance exists towards resident intestinal flora but is broken in active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Clin Exp Immunol 1995; 102: 44855.
  • 5
    Hans W, Schölmerich J, Gross V, Falk W. The role of resident intestinal flora in acute and chronic dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2000; 12: 26773.
  • 6
    Brimnes J, Reimann J, Nissen MH, Claesson MH. Enteric bacterial antigens activate CD4+ T-cells from scid mice with inflammatory bowel disease. Eur J Immunol 2001; 31: 2331.
  • 7
    Claesson MH, Bregenholt S, Bonhagen K et al. Colitis-inducing potency of CD4(+) T cells in immunodeficient, adoptive hosts depends on their state of activation, IL-12 responsiveness, and CD45RB surface phenotype. J Immunol 1999; 162: 370210.
  • 8
    Rudolphi A, Bonhagen K, Reimann J. Polyclonal expansion of adoptively transferred CD4+αβ T cells in the colonic lamina propria of scid mice with colitis. Eur J Immunol 1996; 26: 115663.
  • 9
    Morrissey PJ, Charrier K, Braddy S, Liggitt D, Watson JD. CD4+ T cells that express high levels of CD45RB induce wasting disease when transferred into congenic severe combined immunodeficient mice. Disease development is prevented by cotransfer of purified CD4+ T-cells. J Exp Med 1993; 178: 23744.
  • 10
    Powrie F, Leach MW, Mauze S, Barcomb Caddle L, Coffman RL. Phenotypically distinct subsets of CD4+ T cells induce or protect from chronic intestinal inflammation in C.B-17 scid mice. Int Immunol 1993; 5: 146171.
  • 11
    Groux H, Powrie F. Regulatory T cells and inflammatory bowel disease. Immunol Today 1999; 20: 4425.
  • 12
    Roncarolo MG, Levings MK. The role of different subsets of T regulatory cells in controlling autoimmunity. Curr Opin Immunol 2000; 12: 67683.
  • 13
    Garside P, Mowat AM, Khoruts A. Oral tolerance in disease. Gut 1999; 44: 13742.
  • 14
    Weiner HL. Oral tolerance. immune mechanisms and treatment of autoimmune diseases. Immunol Today 1997; 18: 33543.
  • 15
    Mayer L, Shlien R. Evidence for function of Ia molecules on gut epithelial cells in man. J Exp Med 1987; 166: 147183.
  • 16
    Shevach EM. Regulatory T cells in autoimmunity. Annu Rev Immunol 2000; 18: 42349.
  • 17
    Shevach EM. Certified professionals. CD4 (+) CD25 (+) suppressor T cells. J Exp Med 2001; 193: F41F46.
  • 18
    Shevach EM. CD4+CD25+ suppressor T cells: More questions than answers. Nat Rev Immunol 2002; 2: 389400.
  • 19
    Powrie F, Carlino J, Leach MW, Mauze S, Coffman RL. A critical role for transforming growth factor-beta but not interleukin 4 in the suppression of T helper type 1-mediated colitis by CD45RB-low CD4+ T cells. J Exp Med 1996; 183: 266974.
  • 20
    Asseman C, Mauze S, Leach MW, Coffman RL, Powrie F. An essential role for interleukin 10 in the function of regulatory T cells that inhibit intestinal inflammation. J Exp Med 1999; 190: 9951004.
  • 21
    Groux H, O'Garra A, Bigler M et al. A CD4+ T-cell subset inhibits antigen-specific T-cell responses and prevents colitis. Nature 1997; 389: 73742.
  • 22
    Iwasaki A, Kelsall BL. Mucosal immunity and inflammation. I. Mucosal dendritic cells: their specialized role in initiating T cell responses. Am J Physiol 1999; 276: G1074G1078.
  • 23
    Nagler-Anderson C. Tolerance and immunity in the intestinal immune system. Crit Rev Immunol 2000; 20: 10320.
  • 24
    Strober W, Kelsall BL, Fuss I et al. Reciprocal IFN-gamma and TGF-beta responses regulate the occurrence of mucosal inflammation. Immunol Today 1997; 18: 614.
  • 25
    Read S, Malmstrom V, Powrie F. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 plays an essential role in the function of CD25 (+) CD4 (+) regulatory cells that control intestinal inflammation. J Exp Med 2000; 192: 295302.
  • 26
    Takahashi T, Tagami T, Yamazaki S et al. Immunologic self-tolerance maintained by CD25 (+) CD4 (+) regulatory T cells constitutively expressing cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4. J Exp Med 2000; 192: 30310.
  • 27
    Chen W, Jin W, Wahl SM. Engagement of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) induces transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) production by murine CD4 (+) T cells. J Exp Med 1998; 188: 184957.
  • 28
    Butcher EC. Lymphocyte homing and intestinal immunity. In: OgraPL, MesteckyJ, LammME, StroberW, BienenstockJ, McGheeJR, eds. Mucosal Immunology. San Diego: Academic Press, 1999: 50722 .
  • 29
    Berlin C, Berg EL, Briskin MJ et al. Alpha 4 beta 7 integrin mediates lymphocyte binding to the mucosal vascular addressin MAdCAM-1. Cell 1993; 74: 18592.
  • 30
    Papiernik MdeMM, Pontoux C, Vasseur F, Penit C. Regulatory CD4 T cells: expression of IL-2R alpha chain, resistance to clonal deletion and IL-2 dependency. Int Immunol 1998; 10: 3718.
  • 31
    Itoh M, Takahashi T, Sakaguchi N, Kuniyasu Y, Shimizu J, Otsuka F, Sakaguchi S. Thymus and autoimmunity: production of CD25+CD4+ naturally anergic and suppressive T cells as a key function of the thymus in maintaining immunologic self-tolerance. J Immunol 1999; 162: 531726.
  • 32
    Takahashi T, Kuniyasu Y, Toda M, Sakaguchi N, Itoh M, Iwata M, Shimizu J, Sakaguchi S. Immunologic self-tolerance maintained by CD25+CD4+ naturally anergic and suppressive T cells: induction of autoimmune disease by breaking their anergic/suppressive state. Int Immunol 1998; 10: 196980.
  • 33
    Thornton AM, Shevach EM. CD4+ CD25+ immunoregulatory T cells suppress polyclonal T cell activation in vitro by inhibiting interleukin 2 production. J Exp Med 1998; 188: 28796.
  • 34
    Jonuleit H, Schmitt E, Schuler G, Knop J, Enk AH. Induction of interleukin 10-producing, nonproliferating CD4 (+) T cells with regulatory properties by repetitive stimulation with allogeneic immature human dendritic cells. J Exp Med 2000; 192: 121322.
  • 35
    Thornton AM, Shevach EM. Suppressor effector function of CD4+CD25+ immunoregulatory T cells is antigen nonspecific. J Immunol 2000; 164: 18390.