SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Åkerblom HK, Savilahti E, Vaarala O. Cow's milk protein and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Scand J Nutrition 1996; 40: 98103.
  • 2
    Åkerblom HK, Knip M. Putative environmental factors in Type I diabetes. Diabetes Metab Rev 1998; 14: 3167.
  • 3
    Harrison LC, Honeyman MC. Cow's milk and Type I diabetes: the real debate is about mucosal immune function. Diabetes 1999; 48: 15017.
  • 4
    Yoon J-W. A new look at viruses in type I diabetes. Diabetes Metab Rev 1995; 11: 83107.
  • 5
    Clements GB, Galbraith DN, Taylor KW. Coxsackie B virus infection and onset of childhood diabetes. Lancet 1995; 346: 2213.
  • 6
    Andréoletti L, Hober D, Hober-Vandenberghe C et al. Detection of coxsackie B virus RNA sequences in whole blood samples from adult patients at the onset of type I diabetes mellitus. J Med Vir 1997; 52: 1217.
  • 7
    Nairn C, Galbraith DN, Taylor KW, Clements GB. Enterovirus variants in the serum of children at the onset of type I diabetes mellitus. Diab Med 1999; 16: 50913.
  • 8
    Hyöty H, Hiltunen M, Knip M et al. A prospective study of the role of coxsackie B and other enterovirus infections in the pathogenesis of IDDM. Diabetes 1995; 44: 6527.
  • 9
    Dahlquist GG, Ivarsson S, Lindberg B, Forsgren M. Maternal enterovirus during pregnancy as a risk factor for childhood IDDM. A population-based case–control study. Diabetes 1995; 44: 40813.
  • 10
    Hiltunen M, Hyöty H, Knip M et al. Islet cell antibody seroconversion in children is temporally associated with enterovirus infections. J Infect Dis 1997; 175: 55460.
  • 11
    Lönnrot M, Knip M, Roivainen M, Koskela P, Åkerblom HK, Hyöty H. Onset of type I diabetes in infancy after enterovirus infections. Diab Med 1998; 15: 4314.
  • 12
    Lönnrot M, Korpela K, Knip M et al. Enterovirus infection as a risk factor for beta-cell autoimmunity in the prospective birth-cohort trial DIPP. Diabetes 2000; 49: 13148.
  • 13
    Otonkoski T, Roivainen M, Vaarala O et al. Neonatal type I diabetes associated with maternal echovirus 6 infection: a case report. Diabetologia 2000; 43: 12358.
  • 14
    Åkerblom HK, Savilahti E, Saukkonen T et al. The case for elimination of cow's milk in early infancy in the prevention of Type I diabetes: the Finnish experience. Diabetes Metab Rev 1993; 9: 26978.
  • 15
    Roivainen M, Knip M, Hyöty H et al. Several different enterovirus serotypes can be associated with prediabetic autoimmune episodes and onset of overt IDDM. J Med Virol 1998; 56: 748.
  • 16
    Lönnrot M, Sjöroos M, Salminen K, Maaronen M, Hyypiä T, Hyöty H. Diagnosis of entero- and rhinovirus infections by RT-PCR and time-resolved fluorometry with lanthanide chelate labelled probes. J Med Virol 1999; 59: 37884.
  • 17
    Bottazzo GF, Florin-Christensen A, Doniach D. Islet-cell antibodies in diabetes mellitus with autoimmune polyendocrine deficiencies. Lancet 1974; ii: 127982.
  • 18
    Ronkainen M, Hämäläinen A-M, Koskela P, Åkerblom HK, Knip M and the Finnish TRIGR Study Group. Pregnancy induces non-immunoglobulin insulin-binding activity in both maternal and cord blood serum. Clin Exp Immunol 2001; 124: 1906.
  • 19
    Williams AJK, Bingley PJ, Bonifacio E, Palmer JP, Gale EAM. A novel micro-assay for insulin autoantibodies. J Autoimmun 1997; 10: 4738.
  • 20
    Petersen JS, Hejnaes KR, Moody A et al. Detection of GAD65 antibodies in diabetes and other autoimmune diseases using a simple radioligand assay. Diabetes 1994; 43: 45967.
  • 21
    Savola K, Sabbah E, Kulmala P, Vähäsalo P, Ilonen J, Knip M. Autoantibodies associated with type I diabetes mellitus persist after diagnosis in children. Diabetologia 1998; 41: 12937.
  • 22
    Bonifacio E, Lampasona V, Genovese S, Ferrari M, Bosi E. Identification of protein tyrosine phosphatase-like IA2 (islet cell antigen 512) as the insulin-dependent diabetes-related 37/40K autoantigen and a target of islet-cell antibodies. J Immunol 1995; 155: 541926.
  • 23
    Savola K, Bonifacio E, Sabbah E et al. IA-2 antibodies − a sensitive marker of IDDM with clinical onset in childhood and adolescence. Diabetologia 1998; 41: 4249.
  • 24
    Sjöroos M, Iitiä A, Ilonen J, Reijonen H, Lövgren T. Triple-label hybridization assay for Type I diabetes-related HLA alleles. Biotechniques 1995; 18: 8707.
  • 25
    Matthews JNS, Altman DG, Campbell MJ, Royston P. Analysis of serial measurements in medical research. Br Med J 1990; 300: 2305.
  • 26
    Åkerblom HK, Virtanen SM, Hämäläinen A-M et al. Emergence of diabetes associated autoantibodies in the nutritional prevention of IDDM (TRIGR) project. Diabetes, 1999; 48 (Suppl. 1):A45[Abstract].
  • 27
    Juhela S, Hyöty H, Lönnrot M, Roivainen M, Simell O, Ilonen J. Enterovirus infections and enterovirus specific T-cell responses in infancy. J Med Virol 1998; 54: 22632.
  • 28
    Morens D, Pallansch MA. Epidemiology. In: RotbartHA, ed. Human enterovirus infections. Washington: ASM Press, 1995: 323.
  • 29
    Sadeharju K, Lönnrot M, Kimpimäki T et al. Enterovirus antibody levels during the first two years of life in prediabetic autoantibody-positive children. Diabetologia 2001; 40: 81823.
  • 30
    Montgomery LB, Loria RM. Humoral immune response in hereditary and overt diabetes mellitus. J Med Virol 1986; 19: 25568.