HIV infection is characterized by an enhanced oxidant burden and a systemic deficiency of the tripeptide glutathione (GSH), a major antioxidant. The semi-essential amino acid cysteine is the main source of the free sulfhydryl group of GSH and limits its synthesis. Therefore, different strategies to supplement cysteine supply have been suggested to increase glutathione levels in HIV-infected individuals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral supplementation with two different cysteine-rich whey protein formulas on plasma GSH levels and parameters of oxidative stress and immune status in HIV-infected patients.
In a prospective double blind clinical trial, 30 patients (25 male, 5 female; mean age (± SD) 42 ± 9·8 years) with stable HIV infection (221 ± 102 CD4 + lymphocytes L−1) were randomized to a supplemental diet with a daily dose of 45 g whey proteins of either Protectamin (Fresenius Kabi, Bad Hamburg, Germany) or Immunocal (Immunotec, Vandreuil, Canada) for two weeks. Plasma concentrations of total, reduced and oxidized GSH, superoxide anion (O2–) release by blood mononuclear cells, plasma levels of TNF-α and interleukins 2 and 12 were quantified with standard methods at baseline and after therapy.
Pre-therapy, plasma GSH levels (Protectamin: 1·92 ± 0·6 μM; Immunocal: 1·98 ± 0·9 μM) were less than normal (2·64 ± 0·7 μM, P = 0·03). Following two weeks of oral supplementation with whey proteins, plasma GSH levels increased in the Protectamin group by 44 ± 56% (2·79 ± 1·2 μM, P = 0·004) while the difference in the Immunocal group did not reach significance (+ 24·5 ± 59%, 2·51 ± 1·48 μM, P = 0·43). Spontaneous O2– release by blood mononuclear cells was stable (20·1 ± 14·2 vs. 22·6 ± 16·1 nmol h−1 10−6 cells, P = 0·52) whereas PMA-induced O2– release decreased in the Protectamin group (53·7 ± 19 vs. 39·8 ± 18 nmol h−1 10−6 cells, P = 0·04). Plasma concentrations of TNF-α and interleukins 2 and 12 (P > 0·08, all comparisons) as well as routine clinical parameters remained unchanged. Therapy was well tolerated.
In glutathione-deficient patients with advanced HIV-infection, short-term oral supplementation with whey proteins increases plasma glutathione levels. A long-term clinical trial is clearly warranted to see if this ‘biochemical efficacy’ of whey proteins translates into a more favourable course of the disease.