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Predictive modelling of freshwater fish as a biomonitoring tool in New Zealand


 Michael K. Joy, Institute of Natural Resources-Ecology, Massey University, Private Bag 11 222, Palmerston North, New Zealand. E-mail:


SUMMARY 1. A challenge has been issued to ecologists to find quantitative ecological relationships that have predictive power. A predictive approach has been successful when applied to biomonitoring using stream invertebrates with the River Invertebrate Prediction and Classification System (RIVPACS). This approach, to our knowledge, has not been applied to freshwater fish assemblages.

2. This paper describes the initial results of the application of a regional predictive model of freshwater fish occurrence using 200 reference sites sampled in the Manawatu–Wanganui region of New Zealand over late summer/autumn 2000. In brief (i) sites were classified into biotic groups (ii) the physical and chemical characteristics that best describe variation among these groups were determined and (iii) the relationship between these environmental variables and fish communities was used to predict the fauna expected at a site.

3. Reference sites clustered into six groups based on fish density and community composition. Using 14 physical variables least influenced by human activities, a discriminant model allocated 70% of sites to the correct biological classification group. The variables that best separated the site groups were mainly large-scale variables including altitude, distance from the coast, lotic ecoregion and map co-ordinates.

4. The model was further validated by randomly removing 20% of the sites, rebuilding the model and then determining the number of removed sites correctly allocated to their original biotic groups using environmental variables. Using this process 67% of the removed sites were correctly reassigned to the six predetermined groups.

5. A further 30 sites were used to determine the ability of the model to detect anthropogenic impact. The observed over expected taxa (O/E) ratios were significantly lower than the reference site O/E ratios, indicating a response of the fish assemblages to the known stressors.