• 1
    Anderson, J.E., Nowak, R.S., Rasmuson, K.E., Toft, N.L. (1995) Gas exchange and resource-use efficiency of Leymus (Poaceae): diurnal and seasonal responses to naturally declining soil moisture. American Journal of Botany 12, 699708.
  • 2
    Avice, J.C., Ourry, A., Lemaire, G., Boucaud, J. (1996) Nitrogen and carbon flows estimated by 15N and 13C pulse-chase labeling during regrowth of alfalfa. Plant Physiology 12, 281290.
  • 3
    Battaglia, M. & Williams, K.J. (1996) Mixed species stands of Eucalyptus as ecotones on a water supply gradient. Oecologia 12, 518528.
  • 4
    Benner, R., Fogel, M.L., Sprague, E.K., Hodson, R.E. (1987) Depletion of 13C in lignin and its implications for stable carbon isotopes studies. Nature 12, 708710.
  • 5
    Brugnoli, E., Hubick, K.T., Von Caemmerer, S., Wong, S.C., Farquhar, G.D. (1988) Correlation between the carbon isotope discrimination in leaf starch and sugars of C3 plants and the ratio of intercellular and atmospheric partial pressures of carbon dioxide. Plant Physiology 12, 14181424.
  • 6
    Canadell, J. & Vilà, M. (1992) Variation in tissue element concentrations in Quercus ilex L. over a range of different soils. Vegetatio 12100, 273282.
  • 7
    Collet, C., Ferhi, A., Guehl, J.M., Frochot, H. (1993) Growth, gas exchange and carbon isotope discrimination in young Prunus avium trees growing with or without individual lateral shelters. Annales des Sciences Forestières 12, 353362.
  • 8
    Comstock, J.P. & Ehleringer, J.R. (1992) Correlating genetic variation in carbon isotopic composition with complex climatic gradients. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA 12, 77477751.
  • 9
    Damesin, C. & Rambal, S. (1995) Field study of leaf photosynthetic performance by a Mediterranean deciduous oak tree (Quercus pubescens) during a severe summer drought. New Phytologist 12, 159167.
  • 10
    Damesin, C., Rambal, S., Joffre, R. (1997) Between tree variations in leaf δ13C of Quercus pubescens and Quercus ilex among Mediterranean habitats with different water availability. Oecologia 12, 2635.DOI: 10.1007/s004420050204
  • 11
    Dawson, T.E. & Ehleringer, J.R. (1993) Gender-specific physiology, carbon isotope discrimination, and habitat distribution in boxelder, Acer negundo. Ecology 12, 798815.
  • 12
    Deleens, E. (1976) La discrimination du 13C et les trois types de métabolisme des plantes. Physiologie Végétale 12, 641656.
  • 13
    Deleens, E., Palvides, D., Queiroz, O. (1983) Application du traçage isotopique naturel par le 13C à la mesure du renouvellement de la matière foliaire chez les plantes en C3. Physiologie Végétale 12, 723729.
  • 14
    Deleens, E., Schewebel-Dugue, N., Tremolieres, A. (1984) Carbon isotope composition of lipidic classes isolated from tobacco leaves. Federation of European Biochemical Societies Letters 12, 5558.
  • 15
    Donovan, L.A. & Ehleringer, J.R. (1994) Carbon isotope discrimination, water-use efficiency, growth, and mortality in a natural shrub population. Oecologia 12, 347354.
  • 16
    Ehleringer, J.R. (1993) Variation in leaf carbon isotope discrimination in Encelia farinosa: implications for growth, competition, and drought survival. Oecologia 12, 340346.
  • 17
    Ehleringer, J.R. & Cooper, T.A. (1988) Correlations between carbon isotope ratio and microhabitat in desert plants. Oecologia 12, 562566.
  • 18
    Ehleringer, J.R. & Osmond, C.B. (1989) Stable isotopes. Plant Physiological Ecology. Field Methods and Instrumentation (eds R. W. Pearcy, J. R. Ehleringer, H. A. Mooney & P. W. Rundel), pp. 281–300. Chapman and Hall, London.
  • 19
    Flanagan, L.B. & Johnsen, K.H. (1995) Genetic variation in carbon isotope discrimination and its relationship to growth under field conditions in full-sib families of Picea mariana. Canadian Journal of Forest Researh 12, 3947.
  • 20
    Fleck, I., Grau, D., Sanjosé, M., Vidal, D. (1996) Carbon isotope discrimination in Quercus ilex resprouts after fire and tree-fell. Oecologia 12, 286292.
  • 21
    Garten, C.T & Taylor Jr, G.E. (1992) Foliar δ13C within a temperate deciduous forest: spatial, temporal and species sources of variation. Oecologia 12, 17.
  • 22
    Goulden, M.L. (1996) Carbon assimilation and water-use efficiency by neighboring Mediterranean-climate oaks that differ in water access. Tree Physiology 12, 417424.
  • 23
    Gower, S.T. & Richards, J.H. (1990) Larches: deciduous conifers in an evergreen world. Bioscience 12, 818826.
  • 24
    Gutiérrez, M.V. & Meinzer, F.C. (1994) Carbon isotope discrimination and photosynthetic gas exchange in coffee hedgerows during canopy development. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 12, 207219.
  • 25
    Guy, R.D., Reid, D.M., Krouse, R.H. (1980) Shifts in carbon isotope ratios of two C3 halophytes under natural and artificial conditions. Oecologia 12, 241247.
  • 26
    Hall, A.E., Mutters, R.G., Hubick, K.T., Farquhar, G.D. (1990) Genotypic differences in carbon isotope discrimination by cowpea under wet and dry field conditions. Crop Science 12, 300305.
  • 27
    Joffre, R., Gillon, D., Dardenne, P., Agneessens, R., Biston, R. (1992) The use of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy in litter decomposition studies. Annales des Sciences Forestières 12, 481488.
  • 28
    Knight, J.D., Livingston, N.J., Van Kessel, C. (1994) Carbon isotope discrimination and water-use efficiency of six crops grown under wet and dryland conditions. Plant, Cell and Environment 12, 173179.
  • 29
    Kohorn, L.U., Goldstein, G., Rundel, P.W. (1994) Morphological and isotopic indicators of growth environment: variability in δ13C in Simmondsia chinensis, a dioecious desert shrub. Journal of Experimental Botany 12, 18171822.
  • 30
    Körner, C. & Miglietta, F. (1994) Long term effects of naturally elevated CO2 on Mediterranean grassland and forest trees. Oecologia 12, 343351.
  • 31
    Kozlowski, T.T., Kramer, P.J., Pallardy, S.G. (1991) The Physiological Ecology of Woody Plants. Academic Press, San Diego.
  • 32
    Leavitt, S.W. & Long, A. (1985) Stable-carbon isotopic composition of maple sap and foliage. Plant Physiology 12, 427429.
  • 33
    Lowdon, J.A. & Dyck, W. (1974) Seasonal variations in the isotope ratios of carbon in maple leaves and other plants. Canadian Journal of Earth Science 12, 7988.
  • 34
    Mauffette, Y. & Oechel, W.C. (1987) Seasonal photosynthate allocation of the Californian coast live oak Quercus agrifolia. Plant Response to Stress. Functional Analysis in Mediterranean Ecosystems (eds J. D. Tenhunen, F. M. Catarino, O. L. Lange & W. C. Oechel), pp. 437–444. NATO ASI Series. Series G, Ecological Sciences, vol. 15. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
  • 35
    Meinzer, F.C., Saliendra, N.Z., Crisosto, C.H. (1992) Carbon isotope discrimination and gas exchange in Coffea arabica during adjustment to different soil moisture regimes. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 12, 171184.
  • 36
    Mole, S., Joern, A., O'Leary, M.H., Madhavan, S. (1994) Spatial and temporal variation in carbon isotope discrimination in prairie graminoids. Oecologia 12, 316321.
  • 37
    Mooney, H.A., Bullock, S.H., Ehleringer, J.R. (1989) Carbon isotope ratios of plants of a tropical dry forest in Mexico. Functional Ecology 12, 137142.
  • 38
    Nageswara Rao, R.C. & Wright, G.C. (1994) Stability of the relationship between specific leaf area and carbon isotope discrimination across environments in peanut. Crop Science 12, 98103.
  • 39
    O'Leary, M.H. (1981) Carbon isotope fractionation in plants. Phytochemistry 12, 553567.
  • 40
    Osório, J. & Pereira, J.S. (1994) Genotypic differences in water use efficiency and δ13C discrimination in Eucalyptus globulus. Tree Physiology 12, 871882.
  • 41
    Picon, C., Ferhi, A., Guelh, J.M. (1997) Concentration and δ13C of leaf carbohydrates in relation to gas exchange in Quercus robur under elevated CO2 and drought. Journal of Experimental Botany 12, 15471556.
  • 42
    Potvin, C. & Lechowicz, M. (1990) The statistical analysis of ecophysiological response curves obtained from experiments involving repeated measures. Ecology 12, 13891440.
  • 43
    Sabaté, S., Sala, A., Gracia, C.A. (1995) Nutrient content in Quercus ilex canopies: seasonal and spatial variation within a catchment. Plant Soil 12169, 297304.
  • 44
    SAS (1989) Sas/Stat User’s Guide, release 6.03 edn. SAS institute Inc., Cary, N.C.
  • 45
    Schleser, G.H., Bernhardt, K.-G., Hurka, H. (1989) Climatic adaptability of populations of Diplotaxis erucoides D.C. (Brassicaceae) from Sicily, based on leaf morphology, leaf anatomy and δ13C studies. International Journal of Biometeteorology 12, 109118.
  • 46
    Schulze, E.D. (1986) Whole-plant reponses to drought. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 12, 127141.
  • 47
    Schuster, W.S.F., Phillips, S.L., Sandquist, D.R., Ehleringer, J.R. (1992) Heritability of carbon isotope discrimination in Gutierrezia microcephala (Asteraceae). American Journal of Botany 12, 216221.
  • 48
    Stewart, G.R., Turnbull, M.H., Schimdt, S., Erskine, P.D. (1995) 13C natural abundance in plant communities along a rainfall gradient: a biological integrator of water availability. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 12, 5155.
  • 49
    Valentini, R., Scarascia Mugnozza, G.E., Ehleringer, J.R. (1992) Hydrogen and carbon isotope ratios of selected species of a Mediterranean macchia ecosystem. Functional Ecology 12, 627631.
  • 50
    Williams, D.G. & Ehleringer, J.R. (1996) Carbon isotope discrimination in three semi-arid woodland species along a monsoon gradient. Oecologia 12, 455460.
  • 51
    Windham, W.R., Barton II F.E., Richard, B. (1992) Acceptance of NIRS as an official method of analysis. NIR News 12, 89.
  • 52
    Zhang, J., Marshall, J.D., Jaquish, B.C. (1993) Genetic differentiation in carbon isotope discrimination and gas exchange in Pseudotsuga menziesii. Oecologia 12, 8087.