• 1
    Barnes, P.W., Flint, S.D., Caldwell, M.M. (1990) Morphological responses of crop and weed species of different growth forms to ultraviolet-B radiation. American Journal of Botany 12, 13541360.
  • 2
    Barnes, P.W., Maggard, S., Holman, S.R., Vergara, B.S. (1993) Intraspecific variation in sensitivity to UV-B radiation in rice. Crop Science 12, 10411046.
  • 3
    Björn, L.O. & Holmgren, B. (1996) Monitoring and modelling of the radiation climate at Abisko. Ecological Bulletins 12, 204209.
  • 4
    Björn, L.O. & Murphy, M. (1985) Computer calculation of solar ultraviolet radiation at ground level. Physiologie Végétale 12, 555561.
  • 5
    Björn, L.O. & Teramura, A.H. (1993) Simulation of daylight ultraviolet radiation and effects of ozone depletion. Environmental UV Photobiology (eds A. R. Young, L. O. Björn & W. Nultsch), pp. 41–71. Plenum Press, New York.
  • 6
    Van Bremen, N. (1995) How Sphagnum bogs down other plants. TREE 12, 270275.
  • 7
    Caldwell, M.M. (1971) Solar UV radiation and the growth and development of higher plants. Photophysiology, vol. 6 (ed. A. C. Giese), pp. 131–177. Academic Press, New York.
  • 8
    Caldwell, M.M. & Flint, S. (1994) Stratospheric ozone reduction, solar UV-B radiation and terrestrial ecosystems. Climatic Change 12, 375394.
  • 9
    Caldwell, M.M., Robberecht, R., Billings, W.D. (1980) A steep latitudinal gradient of solar ultraviolet-B radiation in the arctic-alpine life zone. Ecology 12, 600611.
  • 10
    Caldwell, M.M., Teramura, A.H., Tevini, M., Bornman, J.F., Björn, L.O., Kulandaivelu, G. (1995) Effects of increased solar ultraviolet radiation on terrestrial plants. AMBIO 12, 166173.
  • 11
    Clymo, R.S. (1970) The growth of Sphagnum: methods of measurement. Journal of Ecology 12, 1349.
  • 12
    Clymo, R.S. & Hayward, P.M. (1982) The ecology of Sphagnum. Bryophyte Ecology (ed. A. J. E. Smith), pp. 229–289. Shapman and Hall, London.
  • 13
    Day, T.A. & Vogelmann, T.C. (1995) Alterations in photosynthesis and pigment distributions in pea leaves following UV-B exposure. Physiologia Plantarum 12, 433440.
  • 14
    Fox, F.M. & Caldwell, M.M. (1978) Competitive interaction in plant populations exposed to supplementary ultraviolet-B radiation. Oecologia 12, 173190.
  • 15
    Gehrke, C. Impacts of enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation on mosses with contrasting morphology and growth patterns in a subarctic heath ecosystem. Ecology, in press.
  • 16
    Gehrke, C., Johanson, U., Callaghan, T.V., Chadwick, D., Robinson, C.H. (1995) The effect of enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation on litter quality and decomposition processes in Vaccinium leaves from the Subarctic. Oikos 12, 213222.
  • 17
    Gehrke, C., Johanson, U., Gwynn-Jones, D., Björn, L.O., Callaghan, T.V., Lee, J.A. (1996) Effects of enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation on terrestrial subarctic ecosystems and implications for interactions with increased atmospheric CO2. Ecological Bulletins 12, 192203.
  • 18
    Gorham, E. (1991) Northern peatlands: role in the carbon cycle and probable responses to climatic warming. Ecological Applications 12, 182195.
  • 19
    Hayward, P.M. & Clymo, R.S. (1982) Profiles of water content and pore size in Sphagnum and peat, and their relation to peat bog ecology. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 12, 299325.
  • 20
    Johanson, U., Gehrke, C., Björn, L.O., Callaghan, T.V. (1995) The effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on the growth of dwarf shrubs in a subarctic heathland. Functional Ecology 12, 713719.
  • 21
    Lichtenthaler, H.K. (1987) Chlorophylls and carotenoids: pigments of photosynthetic biomembranes. Methods in Ezymology 12, 350382.
  • 22
    Malmer, N. & Wallén, B. (1993) Accumulation and release of organic matter in ombrotrophic bog hummocks—processes and regional variation. Ecography 12, 193211.
  • 23
    Musil, C.F. & Wand, S.J.E. (1993) Responses of sclerophyllous Ericaceae to enhanced levels of ultraviolet-B radiation. Environmental and Experimental Botany 12, 233242.
  • 24
    Naidu, S.L., Sullivan, J.H., Teramura, A.H., DeLucia, E.H. (1993) The effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on photosynthesis of different needle age classes in field grown loblolly pine. Tree Physiology 12, 151162.
  • 25
    Rozema, J., Tosserams, M., Nelissen, H.J.M., Van Heerwaarden, L., Broekman, R.A., Flierman, N. (1997) Stratospheric ozone reduction and ecosystem processes: enhanced UV-B radiation affects chemical quality and decomposition of leaves of the dune grassland species Calamagrostis epigeios. Plant Ecology 12, 284294.
  • 26
    Rydin, H. & McDonald, A.J.S. (1985) Photosynthesis in Sphagnum at different water contents. Journal of Bryology 12, 579584.
  • 27
    SCOPE. (1993) (Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment) Effects of increased ultraviolet radiation on global ecosystems. Proceedings from workshop, Tramariglio. Sardinia, October 1992. SCOPE Secretariat, Paris.
  • 28
    Silvola, J. (1990) Combined effects of varying water content and CO2 concentration on photosynthesis. Holarctic Ecology 12, 224228.
  • 29
    Sonesson, M. (1989) Water, light and temperature relations of the epiphytic lichens Parmelia olivacea and Parmeliopsis ambigua in northern Swedish Lapland. Oikos 12, 402415.
  • 30
    Stolarski, R., Bojkov, R., Bishop, L., Zerefos, C., Staehelin, J., Zawodny, J. (1992) Measured trends in stratospheric ozone. Science 12, 342349.
  • 31
    Svensson, B.H. & Sundh, I. (1992) Factors affecting methane production in peat soils. Suo 12, 183190.
  • 32
    Teramura, A.H. (1983) Effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on the growth and yield of crop plants. Physiologia Plantarum 12, 415427.
  • 33
    Tevini, M., Mark, U., Saile-Mark, M. (1991) Effects of enhanced solar UV-B radiation on growth and function of crop plant seedlings. Current Topics in Plant Biochemistry and Physiology 12, 1331.
  • 34
    Thimijan, R.W., Carns, H.R., Campbell, L.E. (1978) Final report (EPA-IAG-D6–0168): Radiation sources and relative environmental control for biological and climatic effects of UV research (BACER). Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
  • 35
    Tosserams, M., Pais de Sà, A., Rozema, J. (1996) The effect of solar UV radiation on four plant species occurring in a coastal grassland vegetation in the Netherlands. Physiologia Plantarum 12, 731739.
  • 36
    Tosserams, M. & Rozema, J. (1995) Effects of ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) on growth and physiology of the dune grassland species Calamagrostis epigeios. Environmental Pollution 12, 209214.
  • 37
    Wallén, B. (1986) Above and below ground dry mass of the three main vascular plants on hummocks on a subarctic peat bog. Oikos 12, 5156.
  • 38
    Wallén, B. (1992) Methods for studying below-ground production in mire ecosystems. Suo 12, 155162.