• 1
    Betts, M.M. (1955) The food of titmice in oak woodland. Journal of Animal Ecology 13, 282323.
  • 2
    Blondel, J. (1985) Breeding strategies of the blue tit and coal tit (Parus) in mainland and island Mediterranean habitat: a comparison. Journal of Animal Ecology 13, 531556.
  • 3
    Buse, A. & Good, J.E.G. (1996) Synchronization of larval emergence in winter moth (Operophtera brumata L.) and budburst in pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) under simulated climate change. Ecological Entomology 13, 335343.
  • 4
    Buse, A., Good, J.E.G., Dury, S., Perrins, C.M. (1998) Effects of elevated temperature and carbon dioxide on the nutritional quality of oak leaves as food for the winter moth. Functional Ecology 13, 742749.
  • 5
    Dewar, R.C. & Watt, A.D. (1992) Predicted changes in the synchrony of larval emergence and budburst under climatic warming. Oecologia 13, 557559.
  • 6
    Van Dongen, S., Backeljau, T., Matthysen, E., Dhondt, A.A. (1994) Effects of forest fragmentation on the population structure of the winter moth Operophtera brumata L. (Lepidoptera, Geometridae). Acta Oecologia 13, 193206.
  • 7
    Van Dongen, S., Matthysen, E., Dhondt, A.A. (1996) Restricted male winter moth (Operophtera brumata L.) dispersal amongst host trees. Acta Oecologia 13, 319329.
  • 8
    Dury, S.J., Good, J.E.G., Perrins, C.M., Buse, A., Kaye, T. (1998) The effects of increasing CO2 and temperature on oak leaf palatability and the implications for herbivorous insects. Global Change Biology 13, 5562.
  • 9
    Embree, D.G. (1965) The population dynamics of the winter moth in Nova Scotia, 1954–1962. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada 13, 157.
  • 10
    Feeny, P. (1968) Effect of oak leaf tannins on larval growth of the winter moth Operophtera brumata. Journal of Insect Physiology 13, 805817.
  • 11
    Feeny, P. (1970) Seasonal changes in oak leaf tannins and nutrients as a cause of spring feeding by winter moth caterpillars. Ecology 13, 565581.
  • 12
    Graf, B., Borer, F., Hopli, H.U., Hohn, H., Dorn, S. (1995) The winter moth, Operophtera brumata L. (Lep.: Geometridae), on apple and cherry: spatial and temporal aspects of recolonization in autumn. Journal of Applied Entomology 13, 295301.
  • 13
    Holliday, N.J. (1985) Maintenance of the phenology of the winter moth (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 13, 221234.
  • 14
    Hunter, M.D. (1992) A variable insect–plant interaction: the relationship between tree budburst phenology and population levels of insect herbivores among trees. Ecological Entomology 13, 9195.
  • 15
    Hunter, M.D., Varley, G.C., Gradwell, G.R. (1997) Estimating the relative roles of top-down and bottom-up forces on insect herbivore populations: a classic study revisited. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 13, 91769181.
  • 16
    IPCC (1996) Summary for policy makers. Climate change 1995. The Science of Climate Change (eds J. T. Houghton, L. G. M. Filho, B. A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg & K. Maskell) pp. 1–7. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • 17
    Jones, T.H., Thompson, L.J., Lawton, J.H., Bezemer, T.M., Bardgett, R.D., Blackburn, T.M., Bruce, K.D., Cannon, P.F., Hall, G.S., Hartley, S.E., Howson, G., Jones, C.G., Kampichler, C., Kandeler, E., Ritchie, D.A. (1998) Impacts of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide on model terrestrial ecosystems. Science 13, 441443.
  • 18
    Kampichler, C., Kandeler, E., Bardgett, R.D., Jomes, T.H., Thompson, L.J. (1998) Impact of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on soil microbial biomass and activity in a complex, weedy field model ecosystem. Global Change Biology 13, 335346.
  • 19
    Kerslake, J.E. & Hartley, S.E. (1997) Phenology of winter moth feeding on common heather: effects of source population and experimental manipulation of hatch dates. Journal of Animal Ecology 13, 375385.
  • 20
    Kerslake, J.E., Kruuk, L.E.B., Hartley, S.E., Woodin, S.J. (1996) Winter moth (Operophtera brumata (Lepidoptera: Geometridae)) outbreaks on Scottish heather moorlands: effects of host plant and parasitoids on larval survival and development. Bulletin of Entomological Research 13, 155164.
  • 21
    Kirsten, K. & Topp, W. (1991) Acceptance of willow-species for the development of the winter moth, Operophtera brumata (Lep.: Geometridae). Journal of Applied Entomology 13, 457468.
  • 22
    Lawton, J.H. (1996) The Ecotron facility at Silwood Park: the value of ‘Big Bottle’ experiments. Ecology 13, 665669.
  • 23
    Van Noordwijk, A.J., Van Balen, J.H., Scharloo, W. (1981) Genetic variation in the timing of reproduction in the Great Tit. Oecologia 13, 158166.
  • 24
    Van Noordwijk, A.J., McCleery, R.H., Perrins, C.M. (1995) Selection for the timing of great tit breeding in relation to caterpillar growth and temperature. Journal of Animal Ecology 13, 451458.
  • 25
    Perrins, C.M. (1965) Population fluctuations and clutch size in the great tit, Parus major L. Journal of Animal Ecology 13, 601647.
  • 26
    Perrins, C.M. (1991) Tits and their caterpillar food supply. Ibis 13, 4954.
  • 27
    Perrins, C.M. & McCleery, R.H. (1989) Laying dates and clutch size in the great tit. Wilson Bulletin 13, 236252.
  • 28
    Pilcher, J.R. & Gray, B. (1982) The relationships between oak tree growth and climate in Britain. Journal of Ecology 13, 297304.
  • 29
    Rafarel, C.R., Ashenden, T.W., Roberts, T.M. (1995) An improved solardome system for exposing plants to elevated CO2 and temperature. New Phytologist 13, 481490.
  • 30
    Rodwell, J.S. (1991) British Plant Communities. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • 31
    Rubstov, V.V. (1996) Influence of repeated defoliations by insects on wood increment in common oak (Q. robur L.). Annalles Des Sciences Forestieres 13, 407412.
  • 32
    Scriber, J.M. & Slansky, F. (1981) The nutritional ecology of immature insects. Annual Review of Entomology 13, 183211.
  • 33
    Smith, P.H. (1972) The energy relations of defoliating insects in a hazel coppice. Journal of Animal Ecology 13, 567587.
  • 34
    Stamp, N.E. (1993) A temperate region view of the interaction of temperature, food quality, and predators on caterpillar foraging. Caterpillars (eds N. E. Stamp & T. M. Casey), pp. 478–508. Chapman & Hall, New York.
  • 35
    Strong, D.R., Lawton, J.H., Southwood, T.R.E. (1984) Insects on Plants: Community Patterns and Mechanisms. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.
  • 36
    Varley, G.C. (1970) The concept of energy flow applied to a woodland community. Animal Populations in Relation to Their Food Resources (ed. A. Watson). British Ecological Society Symposia 10, pp. 389–404, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.
  • 37
    Varley, G.C. & Gradwell, G.R. (1956) Oak defoliators in England. Proceedings of the Tenth International Congress of Entomology 13, 133136.
  • 38
    Varley, G.C. & Gradwell, G.R. (1960) Key factors in population studies. Journal of Animal Ecology 13, 399401.
  • 39
    Varley, G.C., Gradwell, G.R., Hassell, M.P. (1973) Insect Population Ecology: An Analytical Approach. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.
  • 40
    Wargo, P.M. (1996) Consequences of environmental stress on oak: predisposition to pathogens. Annalles des Sciences Forestieres 13, 359368.
  • 41
    Wint, G.R.W. (1983) The role of alternative host-plant species in the life of a polyphagous moth, Operophtera brumata (Lepidoptera. Geometridae). Journal of Animal Ecology 13, 439450.
  • 42
    Woodburn, R.J.W. (1997) The breeding ecology of the blue tit and great tit and the possible effect of climate change. DPhil thesis, University of Oxford, UK.