• Agroforestry;
  • hydraulic lift;
  • sap flow gauges;
  • soil water balance

1. Constant-power heat-balance sap flow gauges were used to compare sap flow in vertical and lateral roots of Grevillea robusta trees growing without access to ground water at a semiarid site in Kenya.

2. Reversal of sap flow occurred when root systems crossed gradients in soil water potential. Measurement of changes in the direction of flow was possible because of the symmetrical construction of the sap flow gauges; gradients in temperature across the gauges, and thus computed rates of sap flow, changed sign when reverse flow occurred.

3. Reverse flow in roots descending vertically from the base of the tree occurred, while uptake by lateral roots continued, when the top of the soil profile was wetter than the subsoil. The transfer of water downwards by root systems, from high to low soil water potential, was termed ‘downward siphoning’; this is the reverse of hydraulic lift.

4. Downward siphoning was induced by the first rain at the end of the dry season and by irrigation of the soil surface during a dry period.

5. Downward siphoning may be an important component of the soil water balance where there are large gradients in water potential across root systems, from a wet soil surface downwards. By transferring water beyond the reach of shallow-rooted neighbours, downward siphoning may enhance the competitiveness of deep-rooted perennials.