SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Barton, A.M. (1986) Spatial variation in the effect of ants on an extrafloral nectary plant. Ecology 67, 495504.
  • 2
    Beattie, A.J. (1985) The Evolutionary Ecology Ant–Plant Mutualisms. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • 3
    Beckmann, R.L. & Stucky, J.M. (1981) Extrafloral nectaries and plant guarding in Ipomoea pandurata (L.) G.F.W. Mey. (Convolvulaceae). American Journal of Botany 68, 7279.
  • 4
    Bentley, B.L. (1977a) Extrafloral nectaries and protection by pugnacious bodyguards. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 8, 407428.
  • 5
    Bentley, B.L. (1977b) The protective function of ants visiting the extrafloral nectaries of Bixa orellana (Bixaceae). Journal of Ecology 65, 2738.
  • 6
    Bernstein, R.A. (1979) Schedules of foraging activity in species of ants. Journal of Animal Ecology 48, 921930.
  • 7
    Blom, P.E. & Clark, W.H. (1980) Observations of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) visiting extrafloral nectaries of the barrel cactus, Ferocactus gracilis Gates (Cactaceae), in Baja California, Mexico. Southwestern Naturalist 25, 181196.
  • 8
    Bronstein, J.L. (1998) The contribution of ant–plant protection studies to our understanding of mutualism. Biotropica 30, 150161.
  • 9
    Carroll, C.R. & Janzen, D.H. (1973) Ecology of foraging by ants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 4, 231257.
  • 10
    Cerdá, X., Retana, J., Cros, S. (1998) Critical thermal limits in Mediterranean ant species: trade-off between mortality risk and foraging performance. Functional Ecology 12, 4555.
  • 11
    Coley, P.D. & Aide, T.M. (1991) Comparison of herbivory and plant defenses in temperate and tropical broad-leved forests. Plant–Animal Interactions: Evolutionary Ecology in Tropical and Temperate Regions (eds P. W. Price, T. M. Lewinsohn, G. W. Fernandes & W. W. Benson), pp. 25–49. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
  • 12
    Costa, F.M.C.B., Oliveira-Filho, A.T., Oliveira, P.S. (1992) The role of extrafloral nectaries in Qualea grandiflora (Vochysiaceae) in limiting herbivory: an experiment of ant protection in cerrado vegetation. Ecological Entomology 17, 362365.
  • 13
    Crawley, M.J. (1983) Herbivory: the Dynamics of Animal–Plant Interactions. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • 14
    Davidson, D.W. & McKey, D. (1993) The evolutionary ecology of symbiotic ant-plant relationships. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 2, 1383.
  • 15
    Del-Claro, K. & Oliveira, P.S. (1999) Ant–Homoptera interactions in a neotropical savanna: the honeydew-producing treehopper Guayaquila xiphias (Membracidae) and its associated ant fauna on Didymopanax vinosum (Araliaceae). Biotropica 31, 135144.
  • 16
    Del-Claro, K., Berto, V., Réu, W. (1996) Effect of herbivore deterrence by ants on the fruit set of an extrafloral nectary plant, Qualea multiflora (Vochysiaceae). Journal of Tropical Ecology 12, 887892.
  • 17
    DeVries, P.J. (1991) Evolutionary and ecological patterns in myrmecophilous riodinid butterflies. Ant–Plant Interactions (eds D. F. Cutler & C. R. Huxley), pp. 143–156. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • 18
    Elias, T.S. (1983) Extrafloral nectaries: their structure and functions. The Biology of Nectaries (eds B. Bentley & T. S. Elias), pp. 174–203. Columbia University Press, New York.
  • 19
    Freitas, A.V.L. & Oliveira, P.S. (1992) Biology and behavior of Eunica bechina (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) with special reference to larval defense against ant predation. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 31, 111.
  • 20
    Freitas, A.V.L. & Oliveira, P.S. (1996) Ants as selective agents on herbivore biology: effects on the behaviour of a non-myrmecophilous butterfly. Journal of Animal Ecology 65, 205210.
  • 21
    González-Espinoza, M. & Quintana-Ascencio, P.F. (1986) Seed predation and dispersal in a dominant desert plant. Opuntia, ants, birds, and mammals. Frugivores and Seed Dispersal (eds A. Estrada & T. H. Fleming.), pp. 273–284. Dr W. Junk, Publishers, Dordrecht.
  • 22
    Grant, B.R. & Grant, P.R. (1981) Exploitation of Opuntia cactus by birds on the Galápagos. Oecologia 49, 179187.
  • 23
    Heads, P.A. & Lawton, J.H. (1985) Bracken, ants and extrafloral nectaries. III. How insect herbivores avoid predation. Ecological Entomology 10, 2942.
  • 24
    Hölldobler, B. & Wilson, E.O. (1990) The Ants. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.
  • 25
    Horvitz, C.C. & Schemske, D.W. (1984) Effects of ants and ant-tended herbivores on seed production of a neotropical herb. Ecology 65, 13691378.
  • 26
    Inouye, D.W. & Taylor, O.R. (1979) A temperate region plant–ant–seed predator system: consequences of extrafloral nectar secretion by Helianthella quinquinervis. Ecology 60, 17.
  • 27
    Janzen, D.H. (1986) Chihuahuan desert nopaleras: defaunated big mammal vegetation. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 17, 595636.
  • 28
    Keeler, K.H. (1981) Function of Mentzelia nuda (Loasaceae) postfloral nectaries in seed defense. American Journal of Botany 68, 295299.
  • 29
    Koptur, S. (1979) Facultative mutualism between weedy vetches bearing extrafloral nectaries and weedy ants in California. American Journal of Botany 66, 10161020.
  • 30
    Koptur, S. (1984) Experimental evidence for defense of Inga (Mimosoideae) saplings by ants. Ecology 65, 17871793.
  • 31
    Koptur, S. (1992) Extrafloral nectary-mediated interactions between insects and plants. Insect–Plant Interactions, vol. 4 (ed. E. Bernays), pp. 81–129. CRC Press, Boca Raton.
  • 32
    Koptur, S. & Lawton, J.H. (1988) Interactions among vetches bearing extrafloral nectaries, their biotic protective agents, and herbivores. Ecology 69, 278283.
  • 33
    Levings, S.C. (1983) Seasonal, annual, and among-site variation in the ground ant community of a deciduous tropical forest: some causes of patchy species distributions. Ecological Monographs 53, 435455.
  • 34
    Lloyd, F.E. (1908) Extra-floral nectaries in the cacti. Plant World 11, 138140.
  • 35
    Mann, J. (1969) Cactus-feeding insects and mites. Smithsonian Institution Bulletin no. 256. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.
  • 36
    Marquis, R.J. (1992) Selective impact of herbivores. Plant Resistance to Herbivores and Pathogens: Ecology, Evolution, and Genetics (eds R. S. Fritz & E. L. Simms), pp. 301–325. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
  • 37
    Moreno-Casasola, P. (1982) Ecología de la vegetación de dunas costeras: Fatores físicos. Biotica 7, 577602.
  • 38
    Moreno-Casasola, P., Van Der Maarel, E., Castillo, S., Huesca, M.L., Pisanty, I. (1982) Ecología de la vegetación de dunas costeras: Estructura y composición. Biotica 7, 491526.
  • 39
    Novelo, A. (1978) La vegetación de la Estación Biológica El Morro de la Mancha, Veracruz. Biotica 3, 923.
  • 40
    O’Dowd, D.J. (1979) Foliar nectar production and ant activity on a neotropical herb, Ochroma pyramidale. Oecologia 43, 233248.
  • 41
    O’Dowd, D.J. & Catchpole, E.A. (1983) Ants and extrafloral nectaries: no evidence for plant protection in Helichrysum spp.–ant interactions. Oecologia 59, 191200.
  • 42
    Oliveira, P.S. (1997) The ecological function of extrafloral nectaries: herbivore deterrence by visiting ants and reproductive output in Caryocar brasiliense (Caryocaraceae). Functional Ecology 11, 323330.
  • 43
    Oliveira, P.S. & Brandão, C.R.F. (1991) The ant community associated with extrafloral nectaries in Brazilian cerrados. Ant–Plant Interactions (eds D. F. Cutler & C. R. Huxley), pp. 198–212. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • 44
    Oliveira, P.S. & Leitão-Filho, H.F. (1987) Extrafloral nectaries: their taxonomic distribution and abundance in the woody flora of cerrado vegetation in Southeast Brazil. Biotropica 19, 140148.
  • 45
    Oliveira, P.S. & Oliveira-Filho, A.T. (1991) Distribution of extrafloral nectaries in the woody flora of tropical communities in Western Brazil. Plant–Animal Interactions: Evolutionary Ecology in Tropical and Temperate Regions (eds P. W. Price, T. M. Lewinsohn, G. W. Fernandes & W. W. Benson), pp. 163–175. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
  • 46
    Oliveira, P.S. & Pie, M.R. (1998) Interaction between ants and plants bearing extrafloral nectaries in cerrado vegetation. Anais Da Sociedade Entomológica Do Brasil 27, 161176.
  • 47
    Oliveira, P.S., Da Silva, A.F., Martins, A.B. (1987) Ant foraging on extrafloral nectaries of Qualea grandiflora (Vochysiaceae) in cerrado vegetation: ants as potential antiherbivore agents. Oecologia 74, 228230.
  • 48
    Oliveira, P.S., Klitzke, C., Vieira, E. (1995) The ant fauna associated with the extrafloral nectaries of Ouratea hexasperma (Ochnaceae) in an area of cerrado vegetation in Central Brazil. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 131, 7782.
  • 49
    Pemberton, R.W. (1988) The abundance of plants bearing extrafloral nectaries in Colorado and Mojave desert communities of southern California. Madroño 35, 238246.
  • 50
    Pickett, C.H. & Clark, W.D. (1979) The function of extrafloral nectaries in Opuntia acanthocarpa (Cactaceae). American Journal of Botany 66, 618625.
  • 51
    Rico-Gray, V. (1989) The importance of floral and circum-floral nectar to ants inhabiting dry tropical lownlands. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 38, 173181.
  • 52
    Rico-Gray, V. (1993) Use of plant-derived food resources by ants in the dry tropical lowlands of Coastal Veracruz, Mexico. Biotropica 25, 301315.
  • 53
    Rico-Gray, V. & Castro, G. (1996) Effect of an ant–aphid–plant interaction on the reproductive fitness of Paullinia fuscecens (Sapindaceae). Southwestern Naturalist 41, 434440.
  • 54
    Rico-Gray, V. & Thien, L.B. (1989) Effect of different ant species on the reproductive fitness of Schombrugkia tibicinis (Orchidaceae). Oecologia 81, 487489.
  • 55
    Rico-Gray, V., García-Franco, J.G., Palacios-Rios, M., Díaz-Castelazo, C., Parra-Tabla, V., Navarro, J.A. (1998) Geographical and seasonal variation in the richness of ant–plant interactions in Mexico. Biotropica 30, 190200.
  • 56
    Ruffner, G.A. & Clark, W.D. (1986) Extrafloral nectar of Ferocactus acanthodes (Cactaceae): composition and its importance to ants. American Journal of Botany 73, 185189.
  • 57
    Schemske, D.W. (1980) The evolutionary significance of extrafloral nectar production by Costus woodsonii (Zingiberaceae): an experimental analysis of ant protection. Journal of Ecology 68, 959967.
  • 58
    Schemske, D.W. (1983) Limits to specialization and coevolution in plant–animal mutualisms. Coevolution (ed. M. H. Nitecki), pp. 67–109. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
  • 59
    Schupp, E.W. & Feener, D.H. (1991) Phylogeny, lifeform, and habitat dependence of ant-defended plants in a Panamanian forest. Ant–Plant Interactions (eds D. F. Cutler & C. R. Huxley), pp. 175–197. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • 60
    Smiley, J.T. (1985) Heliconius caterpillars mortality during establishment on plants with and without attending ants. Ecology 66, 845849.
  • 61
    Stephenson, A.G. (1982) The role of the extrafloral nectaries of Catalpa speciosa in limiting herbivory and increasing fruit production. Ecology 63, 663669.
  • 62
    Thompson, J.N. (1988) Variation in interspecific interactions. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 19, 6587.
  • 63
    Tilman, D. (1978) Cherries, ants and tent caterpillars: timing of nectar production in relation to susceptibility of caterpillars to ant predation. Ecology 59, 686692.
  • 64
    Whalen, M.A. & Mackay, D.A. (1988) Patterns of ant and herbibore activity on five understory Euphorbiaceous saplings in submontane Papua New Guinea. Biotropica 20, 294230.
  • 65
    Whitman, D. (1994) Plant bodyguards: mutualistic interactions between plants ans the third trophic level. Functional Dynamics of Phytophagous Insects (ed. T. N. Ananthakrishnan), pp. 207–248. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co, PVT. Ltd, New Delhi, India.
  • 66
    Wilson, E.O. (1987) The arboreal ant fauna of Peruvian Amazon forests: a first assessment. Biotropica 19, 245282.