Present address: Sea Mammal Research Unit, University of St Andrews, Fife KY16 8LB, UK.
Energy requirements of female Macaroni Penguins breeding at South Georgia
Article first published online: 23 SEP 2002
Volume 16, Issue 5, pages 671–681, October 2002
How to Cite
Green, J. A., Butler, P. J., Woakes, A. J. and Boyd, I. L. (2002), Energy requirements of female Macaroni Penguins breeding at South Georgia. Functional Ecology, 16: 671–681. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2435.2002.00670.x
- Issue published online: 23 SEP 2002
- Article first published online: 23 SEP 2002
- Received 23 October 2001; revised 25 April 2002; accepted 14 May 2002
- heart rate;
- Southern Ocean
- 1Breeding female Macaroni Penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) were implanted with heart rate, temperature and depth data loggers in order to estimate their rate of energy expenditure from heart rate.
- 2The estimated average daily metabolic rates (ADMR) of birds during the brood and crèche phases of the breeding season were 8·17 ± 0·44 W kg−1 and 8·24 ± 0·41 W kg−1, respectively. There was no significant difference between these estimates and the pooled ADMR for all birds was 8·22 ± 0·38 W kg−1.
- 3Metabolic rate while the penguins were at-sea was 9·03 ± 0·39 W kg−1 and this was significantly greater than the metabolic rate of 6·27 ± 0·38 W kg−1 while they were on-shore.
- 4Females undertook shorter foraging trips during the crèche phase than during the brood phase.
- 5When considered as a breeding pair, Macaroni Penguins expend more energy in raising their chick during the crèche phase of the breeding season as the male assists in provisioning the chick only at this time.