SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Barlow, K.E. & Croxall, J.P. (2002) Provisioning behaviour of macaroni penguins Eudyptes chrysolophus. Ibis 144, 248258.
  • Bevan, R.M., Butler, P.J., Woakes, A.J. & Prince, P.A. (1995a) The energy expenditure of free-ranging black-browed albatrosses. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 350B, 119131.
  • Bevan, R.M., Woakes, A.J., Butler, P.J. & Croxall, J.P. (1995b) Heart rate and oxygen consumption of exercising gentoo penguins. Physiological Zoology 68, 855877.
  • Bevan, R.M., Speakman, J.R. & Butler, P.J. (1995c) Daily energy expenditure of Tufted Ducks: a comparison between indirect calorimetry, doubly labelled water and heart rate. Functional Ecology 9, 4047.
  • Bevan, R.M., Butler, P.J., Woakes, A.J. & Boyd, I.L. (2002) The energetics of Gentoo Penguins, Pygoscelis papua, during the breeding season. Functional Ecology 16, 175190.
  • Boyd, I.L. (1999) Foraging and provisioning in Antarctic fur seals: interannual variability in time–energy budgets. Behavioral Ecology 10, 198208.
  • Boyd, I.L. & Croxall, J.P. (1996) Dive durations in pinnipeds and seabirds. Canadian Journal of Zoology 74, 16961705.
  • Boyd, I.L., Woakes, A.J., Butler, P.J., Davis, R.W. & Williams, T.M. (1995) Validation of heart rate and doubly labelled water as measures of metabolic rate during swimming in California Sea Lion. Functional Ecology 9, 151160.
  • Boyd, I.L., Bevan, R.M., Woakes, A.J. & Butler, P.J. (1999) Heart rate and behaviour of fur seals: implications for measurement of field energetics. American Journal of Physiology 276, H844H857.
  • Brierley, A.S., Watkins, J.L. & Murray, A.W.A. (1997) Interannual variability in krill abundance at South Georgia. Marine Ecology Progress Series 150, 8798.
  • Butler, P.J. (1993) To what extent can heart rate be used as an indicator of metabolic rate in free-living marine mammals? Symposium of the Zoological Society of London 66, 317332.
  • Butler, P.J., Woakes, A.J. & Bishop, C.M. (1998) Behaviour and physiology of Svalbard barnacle geese Branta leucopsis during their autumn migration. Journal of Avian Biology 29, 536545.
  • Chappell, M.A., Shoemaker, V.H. & Janes, D.N. (1993) Energetics of foraging in breeding Adélie penguins. Ecology 74, 24502461.
  • Clarke, A. (1980) The biochemical composition of krill (Euphausia superba) from South Georgia. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 43, 221236.
  • Clarke, J.R. (2001) Partitioning of foraging effort in Adélie penguins provisioning chicks at Béchervaise Island, Antarctica. Polar Biology 24, 1620.
  • Clarke, J., Manly, B., Kerry, K., Gardner, H., Franchi, E., Corsolini, S. & Focardi, S. (1998) Sex differences in Adélie penguin foraging strategies. Polar Biology 20, 248258.
  • Croxall, J.P. (1984) Seabirds. Antarctic Ecology (ed. R.M.Laws), pp. 533619. Academic Press, London.
  • Croxall, J.P. (1995) Remote-recording of foraging patterns in seabirds and seals for studies of predator–prey interactions in marine systems. The Ecology of Fjords and Coastal Waters (eds H.R.Skjoldal, C.Hopkins, K.E.Erikstad & H.P.Leinaas), pp. 429442. Elsevier Science BV, Amsterdam.
  • Croxall, J.P., Ricketts, C. & Prince, P.A. (1984) Impact of seabirds on marine resources, especially krill, of South Georgia waters. Seabird Energetics (eds G.C.Whittow & H.Rahn), pp. 285317. Plenum Press, New York.
  • Croxall, J.P., Davis, R.W. & O'Connell, M.J. (1988) Diving patterns in relation to diet of gentoo and macaroni penguins at South Georgia. Condor 90, 157167.
  • Croxall, J.P., Briggs, D.R., Kato, A., Naito, Y., Watanuki, Y. & Williams, T.D. (1993) Diving pattern and performance in the macaroni penguin Eudyptes chrysolophus. Journal of Zoology 230, 3147.
  • Croxall, J.P., Prince, P.A. & Reid, K. (1997) Dietary segregation of krill-eating South Georgian seabirds. Journal of Zoology 242, 531536.
  • Croxall, J.P., Reid, K. & Prince, P.A. (1999) Diet, provisioning and productivity responses of marine predators to differences in availability of Antarctic krill. Marine Ecology Progress Series 177, 115131.
  • Culik, B. (1994) Energetic costs of raising pygoscelid penguin chicks. Polar Biology 14, 205210.
  • Culik, B.M. & Luna-Jorquera, G. (1997) Satellite tracking of Humboldt penguins (Sphesniscus humboldti) in northern Chile. Marine Biology 128, 547556.
  • Culik, B.M., Wilson, R.P., Dannfield, R., Adelung, D., Spairani, H.J. & Coria, N.N.C. (1991) Pygoscelid penguins in a swim canal. Polar Biology 11, 277282.
  • Culik, B.M., Wilson, R.P. & Bannasch, R. (1994) Underwater swimming at low energetic costs by pygoscelid penguins. Journal of Experimental Biology 197, 6578.
  • Davis, R.W., Croxall, J.P. & O'Connell, M.J. (1989) The reproductive energetics of gentoo (Pygoscelis papua) and macaroni (Eudyptes chrysolophus) penguins at South Georgia. Journal of Animal Ecology 58, 5974.
  • Ellis, H.I. (1984) Energetics of free-ranging seabirds. Seabird Energetics (eds G.C.Whittow & H.Rahn), pp. 203234. Plenum Press, New York.
  • Everson, I., ed. (2000) Krill: Biology, Ecology and Fisheries. Blackwell Science, Oxford.
  • Froget, G. (2002) Behaviour, energetics and physiology of a diving bird: the use of heart rate to estimate field metabolism of king penguins. PhD thesis, University of Birmingham, Birmingham.
  • Gales, R. & Green, B. (1990) The annual energetics cycle of little penguins Eudyptula minor. Ecology 71, 22972312.
  • Gales, R., Green, B., Libke, J., Newgrain, K. & Pemberton, D. (1993) Breeding energetics and food requirements of gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua) at Heard and Macquarie Islands. Journal of Zoology 231, 125139.
  • Green, J.A. (2001) The behaviour and energetics of macaroni penguins Eudyptes chrysolophus. PhD thesis, University of Birmingham, Birmingham.
  • Green, J.A., Butler, P.J., Woakes, A.J., Boyd, I.L. & Holder, R.L. (2001) Heart rate and rate of oxygen consumption of exercising macaroni penguins. Journal of Experimental Biology 204, 673684.
  • Green, K., Williams, R. & Green, M.G. (1998) Foraging ecology and diving behaviour of macaroni penguins Eudyptes chrysolophus at Heard Island. Marine Ornithology 26, 2734.
  • Hammond, K.A. & Diamond, J. (1997) Maximal sustained energy budgets in humans and animals. Nature 386, 457462.
  • Hill, H.J., Trathan, P.N., Croxall, J.P. & Watkins, J.L. (1996) A comparison of Antarctic krill Euphausia superba caught by nets and taken by macaroni penguins Eudyptes chrysolophus: evidence for selection? Marine Ecology Progress Series 140, 111.
  • Kooyman, G.L. & Ponganis, P.J. (1998) The physiological basis of diving to depth: birds and mammals. Annual Review of Physiology 60, 1932.
  • Kooyman, G.L., Cherel, Y., Le Maho, Y., Croxall, J.P., Thorson, P.H., Ridoux, V. & Kooyman, C.A. (1992) Diving behavior and energetics during foraging cycles in king penguins. Ecological Monographs 62, 143163.
  • Montevecchi, W.A., Birt-Friesen, V.L. & Cairns, D.K. (1992) Reproductive energetics and prey harvest of Leach's storm-petrels in the Northwest Atlantic. Ecology 73, 823832.
  • Moreno, J. & Sanz, J.J. (1996) Field metabolic rates of breeding chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica) in the South Shetlands. Physiological Zoology 69, 586598.
  • Murphy, E.J., Watkins, J.L., Reid, K., Trathan, P.N., Everson, I., Croxall, J.P., Priddle, J., Brandon, M.A., Brierley, A.S. & Hofman, E. (1998) Interannual variability of the South Georgia marine ecosystem: biological and physical sources of variation in the abundance of krill. Fisheries Oceanography 7, 381390.
  • Nagy, K.A. & Obst, B.S. (1992) Food and energy requirements of Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) on the Antarctic peninsula. Physiological Zoology 65, 12711284.
  • Nagy, K.A., Siegfried, W.R. & Wilson, R.P. (1984) Energy utilization by free-ranging jackass penguins, Spheniscus demersus. Ecology 65, 16481655.
  • Nagy, K.A., Kooyman, G.L. & Ponganis, P.J. (2001) Energetic cost of foraging in free-diving emperor penguins. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 74, 541547.
  • Peterson, C.C., Nagy, K.A. & Diamond, J. (1990) Sustained metabolic scope. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 87, 23242328.
  • Priddle, J., Boyd, I.L., Whitehouse, M.J., Murphy, E.J. & Croxall, J.P. (1998) Estimates of Southern Ocean primary production – constraints from predator carbon demand and nutrient drawdown. Journal of Marine Systems 17, 275288.
  • Reid, K. (1995) The diet of Antarctic fur seals Arctocephalus gazella Peters (1875) during winter at South Georgia. Antarctic Science 7, 241249.
  • Reid, K. & Arnould, J.P.Y. (1996) The diet of Antarctic fur seals Arctocephalus gazella during the breeding season at South Georgia. Polar Biology 16, 105114.
  • Reid, K., Croxall, J.P. & Edwards, T.M. (1997) Interannual variation in the diet of the Antarctic prion Pachyptila desolata at South Georgia. Emu 97, 126132.
  • Reid, K., Watkins, J.L., Croxall, J.P. & Murphy, E.J. (1999) Krill population dynamics at South Georgia 1991–97, based on data from predators and nets. Marine Ecology Progress Series 177, 103114.
  • Ricklefs, R.E. (1983) Some considerations on the reproductive energetics of pelagic seabirds. Studies in Avian Biology 8, 8494.
  • Schmidt-Nielsen, K. (1997) Animal Physiology, 5th edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Stephenson, R., Butler, P.J. & Woakes, A.J. (1986) Diving behaviour and heart rate in tufted ducks Aythya fuligula. Journal of Experimental Biology 126, 341359.
  • Weimerskirch, H. (1998) How can a pelagic seabird provision its chick when relying on a distant food resource? Cyclic attendance at the colony, foraging decision and body condition in sooty shearwaters. Journal of Animal Ecology 67, 99109.
  • Williams, T.D. (1990) Annual variation in the breeding biology of gentoo penguins, Pygoscelis papua, at Bird Island, South Georgia. Journal of Zoology 222, 247258.
  • Williams, T.D. & Croxall, J.P. (1991) Annual variation in breeding biology of macaroni penguins, Eudyptes chrysolophus, at Bird Island, South Georgia. Journal of Zoology 223, 189202.
  • Woakes, A.J., Butler, P.J. & Bevan, R.M. (1995) Implantable data logging system for heart rate and body temperature: its application to the estimation of field metabolic rates in Antarctic predators. Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing 33, 145151.
  • Woehler, E.J. (1993) The Distribution and Abundance of Antarctic and Subantarctic Penguins. Scientific Committee of Antarctic Reseach (SCAR) Bird Biology Sub-Committee, Cambridge.