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Keywords:

  • annual plants;
  • biodiversity;
  • community composition;
  • elevated carbon dioxide;
  • competition;
  • nitrogen uptake

Abstract

Rising levels of atmospheric CO2 may alter patterns of plant biomass production. These changes will be dependent on the ability of plants to acquire sufficient nutrients to maintain enhanced growth. Species-specific differences in responsiveness to CO2 may lead to changes in plant community composition and biodiversity. Differences in species-level growth responses to CO2 may be, in a large part, driven by differences in the ability to acquire nutrients. To understand the mechanisms of how elevated CO2 leads to changes in community-level productivity, we need to study the growth responses and patterns of nutrient acquisition for each of the species that comprise the community.

In this paper, we present a study of how elevated CO2 affects community-level and species-level patterns of nitrogen uptake and biomass production. As an experimental system we use experimental communities of 11 co-occurring annuals common to disturbed seasonal grasslands in south-western U.S.A. We established experimental communities with approximately even numbers of each species in three different atmospheric CO2 concentrations (375, 550, and 700 ppm). We maintained these communities for 1, 1.5, and 2 months at which times we applied a 15N tracer (15NH415NO3) to quantify the nitrogen uptake and then measured plant biomass, nitrogen content, and nitrogen uptake rates for the entire communities as well as for each species.

Overall, community-level responses to elevated CO2 were consistent with the majority of other studies of individual- and multispecies assemblages, where elevated CO2 leads to enhanced biomass production early on, but this enhancement declines through time. In contrast, the responses of the individual species within the communities was highly variable, showing the full range of responses from positive to negative. Due to the large variation in size between the different species, community-level responses were generally determined by the responses of only one or a few species. Thus, while several of the smaller species showed trends of increased biomass and nitrogen uptake in elevated CO2 at the end of the experiment, community-level patterns showed a decrease in these parameters due to the significant reduction in biomass and nitrogen content in the single largest species.

The relationship between enhancement of nitrogen uptake and biomass production in elevated CO2 was highly significant for both 550 ppm and 700 ppm CO2. This relationship strongly suggests that the ability of plants to increase nitrogen uptake (through changes in physiology, morphology, architecture, or mycorrhizal symbionts) may be an important determinant of which species in a community will be able to respond to increased CO2 levels with increased biomass production. The fact that the most dominant species within the community showed reduced enhancement and the smaller species showed increased enhancement suggest that through time, elevated CO2 may lead to significant changes in community composition.

At the community level, nitrogen uptake rates relative to plant nitrogen content were invariable between the three different CO2 levels at each harvest. This was in contrast to significant reductions in total plant nitrogen uptake and nitrogen uptake relative to total plant biomass. These patterns support the hypothesis that plant nitrogen uptake is largely regulated by physiological activity, assuming that physiological activity is controlled by nitrogen content and thus protein and enzyme content.