Nitrogen input together with ecosystem nitrogen enrichment predict nitrate leaching from European forests

Authors

  • J. A. MacDonald,

    1. *Scottish Environment Protection Agency, 7 Whitefriars Crescent,Perth, PH2 0PA, UK,
      †Department of Earth Science, The Open University, Milton Keynes, HK7 6AA, UK,
      ‡Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystem Research, University of Bayreuth (BITÖK), Bayreuth, Germany, §Technical Institute of Dresden, Postfach 1117, D-01735 Tharandt, Germany,
      ¶Danish Forest and Landscape Research Institute, Hørsholm Kongevej 11, DK-2970 Hørsholm, Denmark,
      **Finnish Environment Institute, PO Box 140, FIN-00251 Helsinki, Finland
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  • N. B. Dise,

    1. *Scottish Environment Protection Agency, 7 Whitefriars Crescent,Perth, PH2 0PA, UK,
      †Department of Earth Science, The Open University, Milton Keynes, HK7 6AA, UK,
      ‡Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystem Research, University of Bayreuth (BITÖK), Bayreuth, Germany, §Technical Institute of Dresden, Postfach 1117, D-01735 Tharandt, Germany,
      ¶Danish Forest and Landscape Research Institute, Hørsholm Kongevej 11, DK-2970 Hørsholm, Denmark,
      **Finnish Environment Institute, PO Box 140, FIN-00251 Helsinki, Finland
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  • E. Matzner,

    1. *Scottish Environment Protection Agency, 7 Whitefriars Crescent,Perth, PH2 0PA, UK,
      †Department of Earth Science, The Open University, Milton Keynes, HK7 6AA, UK,
      ‡Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystem Research, University of Bayreuth (BITÖK), Bayreuth, Germany, §Technical Institute of Dresden, Postfach 1117, D-01735 Tharandt, Germany,
      ¶Danish Forest and Landscape Research Institute, Hørsholm Kongevej 11, DK-2970 Hørsholm, Denmark,
      **Finnish Environment Institute, PO Box 140, FIN-00251 Helsinki, Finland
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  • M. Armbruster,

    1. *Scottish Environment Protection Agency, 7 Whitefriars Crescent,Perth, PH2 0PA, UK,
      †Department of Earth Science, The Open University, Milton Keynes, HK7 6AA, UK,
      ‡Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystem Research, University of Bayreuth (BITÖK), Bayreuth, Germany, §Technical Institute of Dresden, Postfach 1117, D-01735 Tharandt, Germany,
      ¶Danish Forest and Landscape Research Institute, Hørsholm Kongevej 11, DK-2970 Hørsholm, Denmark,
      **Finnish Environment Institute, PO Box 140, FIN-00251 Helsinki, Finland
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  • P. Gundersen,

    1. *Scottish Environment Protection Agency, 7 Whitefriars Crescent,Perth, PH2 0PA, UK,
      †Department of Earth Science, The Open University, Milton Keynes, HK7 6AA, UK,
      ‡Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystem Research, University of Bayreuth (BITÖK), Bayreuth, Germany, §Technical Institute of Dresden, Postfach 1117, D-01735 Tharandt, Germany,
      ¶Danish Forest and Landscape Research Institute, Hørsholm Kongevej 11, DK-2970 Hørsholm, Denmark,
      **Finnish Environment Institute, PO Box 140, FIN-00251 Helsinki, Finland
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  • M. Forsius

    1. *Scottish Environment Protection Agency, 7 Whitefriars Crescent,Perth, PH2 0PA, UK,
      †Department of Earth Science, The Open University, Milton Keynes, HK7 6AA, UK,
      ‡Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystem Research, University of Bayreuth (BITÖK), Bayreuth, Germany, §Technical Institute of Dresden, Postfach 1117, D-01735 Tharandt, Germany,
      ¶Danish Forest and Landscape Research Institute, Hørsholm Kongevej 11, DK-2970 Hørsholm, Denmark,
      **Finnish Environment Institute, PO Box 140, FIN-00251 Helsinki, Finland
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Jannette A MacDonald, fax 44 (0)1738 630997, e-mail: jannette.macdonald@sepa.org.uk

Abstract

The IFEF database (Indicators of Forest Ecosystem Functioning), consisting of nitrogen deposition, nitrate leaching fluxes, and soil and ecosystem characteristics, is analysed to evaluate the C/N ratio in the organic horizon as an indicator of nitrate leaching. One hundred and eighty one forests are examined, from countries across Europe ranging from boreal to Mediterranean regions, encompassing broadleaf and coniferous sites and plot and catchment studies. N input in throughfall ranges from less than 1 kg N ha−1 y−1 in northern Norway and Finland to greater than 60 kg N ha−1 y−1 in the Netherlands and Czech Republic. The amount of NO3 leached covers a smaller range, between 1 and 40 kg N ha−1 y−1. Nitrate leaching is strongly dependent on the amount of nitrogen deposited in throughfall (N input) and simply adding the C/N ratio in the organic horizon to a regression equation does not improve this relationship. However, when the data are stratified based on C/N ratios less than or equal to 25 and greater than 25, highly significant relationships (P < 0.05) are observed between N input and NO3 leached. The slope of the relationship for those sites where C/N ratio is  ≤ 25 (′nitrogen enriched′ sites) is twice that for those sites where C/N ratio is > 25. These empirical relationships may be used to identify which forested ecosystems are likely to show elevated rates of nitrate leaching under predicted future nitrogen deposition scenarios. Elevated NO3 leaching also shows a relationship with soil pH, with high rates of NO3 leaching only observed at sites with a pH < 4.5 and N inputs > 30 kg N ha−1 y−1. Tree age and species have no significant impact on the ecosystem response to N input at a regional scale.

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