• cytoplasmic incompatibility;
  • cytoplasmic injection;
  • Drosophila simulans;
  • multiple infections;
  • Wolbachia;
  • wsp

Drosophila simulans strains infected with three different Wolbachia strains were generated by experimental injection of a third symbiont into a naturally double-infected strain. This transfer led to a substantial increase in total Wolbachia density in the host strain. Each of the three symbionts was stably transmitted in the presence of the other two. Triple-infected males were incompatible with double-infected females. No evidence was obtained for interference between modification effects of the different Wolbachia strains in males. Some incompatibility was observed between triple-infected males and females. However, this incompatibility reaction is not a specific property of triple-infected flies, because it was also observed in double-infected strains.