Twenty-three populations of Pinus pinaster (13 Aquitaine populations and 10 Corsican populations) were analysed at three microsatellite loci and 122 AFLP loci. The aims of the study were: (i) to compare levels of within-population and among-population diversity assessed with both kinds of markers; (ii) to compare Aquitaine and Corsican provenances of P. pinaster; and (iii) to know if both markers gave the same information for conservation purposes. Classical population genetics statistics were estimated and the ranking of populations obtained using different markers and/or parameters were compared by computing Spearman’s rank correlations. Even though microsatellites showed a higher within-population diversity, they showed the same level of differentiation as AFLP markers. Moreover, both markers also showed a higher genetic diversity in the Aquitaine provenance and a higher differentiation among Corsican populations. AFLPs and microsatellites gave different population diversity rankings. Consequently, the results do not support the potential population identification within each provenance for conservation purposes.