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Keywords:

  • kidney;
  • renal neoplasms;
  • renal cell carcinoma;
  • renal adenoma;
  • oncocytoma

The classification of renal cell neoplasms has been extensively studied in the last decade, and a standardized nomenclature adopted. Although this system is based on a combination of genetic, histological and immunohistological features, in most cases accurate classification can be based on histological features alone. This review summarizes the key features of the tumours included in this system, and then focuses on diagnostic difficulties that can arise when using this system, as well as reviewing several recently characterized tumours that are not yet included.