• 1
    Miller C.J., Alexander N.J., Vogel P., Anderson J., Marx P.A. (1992) Mechanism of genital transmission of SIV: a hypothesis based on transmission studies and the location of SIV in the genital tract of chronically infected female rhesus macaques. J Med Primatol 21, 64.
  • 2
    Spira A.I., Marx P.A., Patterson B.K. et al. (1996) Cellular targets of infection and route of viral dissemination after an intravaginal inoculation of simian immunodeficiency virus into rhesus macaques. J Exp Med 183, 215.
  • 3
    Lehner T., Bergmeier L.A., Tao L. et al. (1994) Targeted lymph node immunization with simian immunodeficiency virus p27 antigen to elicit genital, rectal and urinary immune responses in nonhuman primates. J Immunol 153, 1858.
  • 4
    Marx P.A., Compans R.W., Gettie A. et al. (1993) Protection against vaginal SIV transmission with microencapsulated vaccine. Science 260, 1323.
  • 5
    Lehner T., Bergmeier L.A., Panagiotidi C. et al. (1992) Induction of mucosal and systemic immunity to a recombinant simian immunodeficiency viral protein. Science 258, 1365.
  • 6
    Lehner T., Brookes R., Panagiotidi C. et al. (1993) T and B cell functions and epitope expression in non-human primates immunized with SIV by the rectal as compared with the systemic route. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90, 8638.
  • 7
    Pauza C.D., Mau E., Salvato M.S. (1993) Pathogenesis of SIVmac251 after atraumatic inoculation of the rectal mucosa in rhesus monkeys. J Med Primatol 22, 154.
  • 8
    Lehner T., Wang Y., Cranage M. et al. (1996) Protective mucosal immunity elicited by targeted iliac lymph node immunization with a subunit SIV envelope and core vaccine in macaques. Nat Med 2, 767.
  • 9
    Walker C.M., Moody D.J., Stites D.P., Levy J.A. (1986) CD8+ lymphocytes can control HIV infection in vitro by suppressing virus replication. Science 234, 1563.
  • 10
    Cocchi F., Devico A.L., Garzino-demo A., Arya S.K., Gallo R.C., Lusso P. (1995) Identification of RANTES, MIP-1α and MIP-1β as the major HIV suppressive factors produced by CD8+ cells. Science 270, 1811.
  • 11
    Amara A., Gall S.L., Schwartz O. et al. (1997) HIV coreceptor downregulation as antiviral principle: SDF-1 alpha-dependent internalization of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 contributes to inhibition of HIV replication. J Exp Med 186, 139.
  • 12
    Aramori I., Zhang J., Ferguson S.S.G., Bieniasz P.D., Cullen B.R., Caron M.G. (1997) Molecular mechanism of desensitization of the chemokine receptor CCR: receptor signaling and internalization are dissociable from its role as an HIV co-receptor. EMBO J 16, 4606.
  • 13
    Wang Y., Tao L., Mitchell E. et al. (1999) Allo-immunization elicits CD8+ T cell-derived chemokines, HIV suppressor factors and resistance to HIV infection in women. Nat Med 5, 1004.
  • 14
    Doyle C.B., Bhattacharyya U., Kent K.A., Stott E.J., Jones I.M. (1995) Regions required for CD4 binding the external glycoprotein gp120 of simian immunodeficiency virus. J Virol 69, 1256.
  • 15
    Villinger F., Brar S.S., Mayne A., Chikkala N., Ansari A.A. (1995) Comparative sequence analysis of cytokine genes from human and nonhuman primates. J Immunol 155, 3946.
  • 16
    Polyanskaya N., Sharpe S., Cook N. et al. (1997) Anti-major histocompatibility complex antibody responses to simian B cells do not protect macaques against SIVmac infection. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 13, 923.
  • 17
    Rose J., Silvera P., Flanagan B., Kitchin P., Almond N. (1995) The development of PCR based assays for the detection and differentiation of simian immunodeficiency virus in vivo. J Virol Methods 51, 229.
  • 18
    Vogel F.R. (1995) The role of adjuvants in retroviral vaccines. Int J Immunopharmacol 17, 85.
  • 19
    Jones T.C. (1994) Future uses of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Stem Cells 12, 229.
  • 20
    Ahlers J.D., Dunlop N., Alling D.W., Nara P.L., Berzofsky J.A. (1997) Cytokine-in-adjuvant steering of the immune response phenotype to HIV-1 vaccine constructs: granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor and TNF-alpha synergize with IL-12 to enhance induction of cytokine T lymphocytes. J Immunol 158, 3947.
  • 21
    Di Marzio P.D., Tse J., Landau N.R. (1998) Chemokine receptor regulation and HIV type 1 tropism in monocyte-macrophages. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 14, 129.
  • 22
    Wang Y., L. Tao, Mitchell I. et al. (1998) Generation of CD8 suppressor factor and β chemokines induced by xenogeneic immunization, in the prevention of simian immunodeficiency virus infection in macaques. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95, 5223.
  • 23
    Gordon C.J., Muesing M.A., Proudfoot A.E.I., Power C.A., Moore J.P., Trkola A. (1999) Enhancement of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection by the CC-chemokines RANTES is independent of the mechanism of virus-cell fusion. J Virol 73, 684.
  • 24
    Deng H., Unutmaz D., Kewal Ramani V.N., Littman D.R. (1997) Expression cloning of nef receptors used by simian and human immunodeficiency virus. Nature 388, 296.
  • 25
    Akhatib G., Liao F., Berger E.A., Peden C.W.C. (1997) A new SIV co-receptor STRL33. Nature 388, 238.
  • 26
    Liao F., Alkhatib G., Peden K.W., Sharma G., Berger E.A., Farber J.M. (1997) STRL33, a novel chemokine receptor-like protein, functions as a fusion cofactor for both macrophage-tropic and T cell line-tropic HIV-1. J Exp Med 11, 2015.
  • 27
    Farzan M., Choe H., Martin K. et al. (1997) Two orphan seven-transmembrane segment receptors which are expressed in CD4-positive cells support simian immunodeficiency virus infection. J Exp Med 186, 405.
  • 28
    Liu R., Paxton W.A., Choe S. et al. (1996) Homozygous defect in HIV-1 co-receptor accounts for resistance of some multiply-exposed individuals to HIV infection. Cell 86, 367.
  • 29
    Samson M., Libert F., Doranz B.J., Rucker J., Liesnard C. (1996) Resistance to HIV-1 infection in caucasian individuals bearing mutant alleles of the CCR5 chemokine receptor gene. Nature (Lond) 382, 722.
  • 30
    Dean M., Carrington M., Winkler C. et al. (1996) Genetic restriction of HIV-1 infection and progression to AIDS by a deletion allele of the CKR5 structural gene. Science 273, 1856.
  • 31
    Moss R.B., Wallace M.R., Lanxa P. et al. (1998) In vitro p24 antigen-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation and Β-chemokine production in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) -seropositive subjects after immunization with an inactivated gp120-depleted HIV-1 immunogen (Remune) . Clin Diag Lab Immunol 5, 308.
  • 32
    Wang Y., Tao L., Mitchell E., Bergmeier L., Doyle C., Lehner T. (1999) The effect of immunization on chemokines and CCR5 and CXCR4 coreceptor functions in SIV binding and chemotaxis. Vaccine 17, 1826.
  • 33
    Lehner T., Bergmeier L., Wang Y., Tao L., Mitchell E. (1999) A rational basis for mucosal vaccination against HIV infection. Immunol Rev 170, 183.