Human β-defensins are broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptides known to be produced by epithelial cells. It was recently shown that β-defensins also display chemotactic activity for dendritic cells (DC) and T cells, and thus may serve to link innate and adaptive immunity. The aim of the present study was to explore expression of mRNA for these peptides in mononuclear phagocytes and DC. The results revealed that monocytes, monocyte-derived-macrophages (MDM), and monocyte-derived-dendritic cells (DC) all express human-β-defensin-1 (hBD-1) mRNA. hBD-1 mRNA expression by monocytes and MDM was increased after activation with interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and/or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Alveolar macrophages showed an intense hBD-1 expression, which could not be further increased. Expression of hBD-1 mRNA by immature DC was low, and increased considerably after maturation. Monocytes, MDM, alveolar macrophages and DC showed a limited expression of human β-defensin-2 (hBD-2) mRNA, which could only be increased in monocytes and alveolar macrophages by IFN-γ and/or LPS in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Immunocytochemical stainings demonstrated the expression of hBD-2 peptide by freshly isolated blood monocytes and alveolar macrophages in cytospin preparations.