SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Svinarich DM, Gomez R, Romero R. Detection of human defensins in the placenta. Am J Reprod Immunol 1997; 38: 2525.
  • 2
    Guleria I, Pollard JW. The trophoblast is a component of the innate immune system during pregnancy. Nat Med 2000; 6: 58993.
  • 3
    Akira S, Takeda K, Kaisho T. Toll-like receptors: critical proteins linking innate and acquired immunity. Nat Immunol 2001; 2: 67580.
  • 4
    Lemaitre B, Nicolas E, Michaut L, Reichhart JM, Hoffmann JA. The dorsoventral regulatory gene cassette spatzle/Toll/cactus controls the potent antifungal response in Drosophila adults. Cell 1996; 86: 97383.
  • 5
    Levashina EA, Langley E, Green C, Gubb D, Ashburner M, Hoffmann JA, Reichhart JM. Constitutive activation of toll-mediated antifungal defense in serpin-deficient Drosophila. Science 1999; 285: 19179.
  • 6
    Rock FL, Hardiman G, Timans JC, Kastelein RA, Bazan JF. A family of human receptors structurally related to Drosophila Toll. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998; 95: 58893.
  • 7
    Chuang TH, Ulevitch RJ. Cloning and characterization of a sub-family of human toll-like receptors: hTLR7, hTLR8 and hTLR9. Eur Cytokine Netw 2000; 11: 3728.
  • 8
    Du X, Poltorak A, Wei Y, Beutler B. Three novel mammalian toll-like receptors. Gene structure, expression, and evolution. Eur Cytokine Netw 2000; 11: 36271.
  • 9
    Hemmi H, Takeuchi O, Kawai T et al. A Toll-like receptor recognizes bacterial DNA. Nature 2000; 408: 7405.
  • 10
    Takeuchi O, Hoshino K, Kawai T, Sanjo H, Takada H, Ogawa T, Takeda K, Akira S. Differential roles of TLR2 and TLR4 in recognition of gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial cell wall components. Immunity 1999; 11: 44351.
  • 11
    Medzhitov R, Preston-Hurlburt P, Janeway CA Jr. . A human homologue of the Drosophila Toll protein signals activation of adaptive immunity. Nature 1997; 388: 3947.
  • 12
    Hoshino K, Takeuchi O, Kawai T, Sanjo H, Ogawa T, Takeda Y, Takeda K, Akira S. Cutting edge: Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-deficient mice are hyporesponsive to lipopolysaccharide: evidence for TLR4 as the Lps gene product. J Immunol 1999; 162: 374952.
  • 13
    Poltorak A, He X, Smirnova I et al. Defective LPS signaling in C3H/HeJ and C57BL/10ScCr mice: mutations in Tlr4 gene. Science 1998; 282: 20858.
  • 14
    Arbour NC, Lorenz E, Schutte BC et al. TLR4 mutations are associated with endotoxin hyporesponsiveness in humans. Nat Genet 2000; 25: 18791.
  • 15
    Lin Y, Lee H, Berg AH, Lisanti MP, Shapiro L, Scherer PE. The lipopolysaccharide-activated toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 induces synthesis of the closely related receptor TLR-2 in adipocytes. J Biol Chem 2000; 275: 2425563.
  • 16
    Underhill DM, Ozinsky A, Hajjar AM, Stevens A, Wilson CB, Bassetti M, Aderem A. The Toll-like receptor 2 is recruited to macrophage phagosomes and discriminates between pathogens. Nature 1999; 401: 8115.
  • 17
    Means TK, Wang S, Lien E, Yoshimura A, Golenbock DT, Fenton MJ. Human toll-like receptors mediate cellular activation by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Immunol 1999; 163: 39207.
  • 18
    Flo TH, Halaas O, Lien E, Ryan L, Teti G, Golenbock DT, Sundan A, Espevik T. Human toll-like receptor 2 mediates monocyte activation by Listeria monocytogenes, but not by group B streptococci or lipopolysaccharide. J Immunol 2000; 164: 20649.
  • 19
    Aliprantis AO, Yang RB, Mark MR et al. Cell activation and apoptosis by bacterial lipoproteins through toll-like receptor-2. Science 1999; 285: 7369.
  • 20
    Brightbill HD, Libraty DH, Krutzik SR et al. Host defense mechanisms triggered by microbial lipoproteins through toll-like receptors. Science 1999; 285: 7326.
  • 21
    Opitz B, Schroder NW, Spreitzer I et al. Toll-like receptor-2 mediates Treponema glycolipid and lipoteichoic acid-induced NF-kappaB translocation. J Biol Chem 2001; 276: 220417.
  • 22
    Schwandner R, Dziarski R, Wesche H, Rothe M, Kirschning CJ. Peptidoglycan- and lipoteichoic acid-induced cell activation is mediated by toll-like receptor 2. J Biol Chem 1999; 274: 174069.
  • 23
    Ekström ES, Bengtsson Å, Svensson A et al. Presence of CD30 (+) and CD30L (+) cells in human placenta and soluble CD30 levels in cord blood are independent of maternal atopy. Placenta 2001; 22: 3729.
  • 24
    Bäckhed F, Söderhäll M, Ekman P, Normark S, Richter-Dahlfors A. Induction of innate immune responses by Escherichia coli and purified lipopolysaccharide correlate with organ- and cell-specific expression of Toll-like receptors within the human urinary tract. Cell Microbiol 2001; 3: 1538.
  • 25
    Kovacs AD, Cebers G, Cebere A, Liljequist S. Selective and AMPA receptor-dependent astrocyte death following prolonged blockade of glutamate reuptake in rat cerebellar cultures. Exp Neurol 2002; 174: 5871.
  • 26
    Benirscke K, Kaufmann P. Pathology of the Human Placenta, 3rd edn. New York: Springer-Verlag 1995.
  • 27
    Cario E, Brown D, McKee M, Lynch-Devaney K, Gerken G, Podolsky DK. Commensal-associated molecular patterns induce selective toll-like receptor-trafficking from apical membrane to cytoplasmic compartments in polarized intestinal epithelium. Am J Pathol 2002; 160: 16573.
  • 28
    Zarember KA, Godowski PJ. Tissue expression of human Toll-like receptors and differential regulation of Toll-like receptor mRNAs in leukocytes in response to microbes, their products, and cytokines. J Immunol 2002; 168: 55461.
  • 29
    Harju K, Glumoff V, Hallman M. Ontogeny of Toll-like receptors Tlr2 and Tlr4 in mice. Pediatr Res 2001; 49: 813.
  • 30
    Beutler E, Gelbart T, West C. Synergy between TLR2 and TLR4: a safety mechanism. Blood Cells Mol Dis 2001; 27: 72830.
  • 31
    Adeleye TA, Moreno C, Ivanyi J, Aston R. The modulation of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 alpha and glucose levels with GMDP and other analogues of muramyl dipeptide. APMIS 1994; 102: 14552.
  • 32
    Beigneux A, Huang J, Le Contel C, Heremans H, Parant MA. Differential role of interferon-gamma in the potentiating effect of muramyl peptides for enhanced responses to lipopolysaccharide in mice: effect of cyclosporin A. J Interferon Cytokine Res 1995; 15: 35965.
  • 33
    Noso Y, Becker J, Riveau G, Audibert F, Chedid L. Production and enhanced anti-tumor activity of tumor necrosis factor in mice treated with cyclophosphamide. Jpn J Cancer Res 1990; 81: 9428.
  • 34
    Parant MA, Pouillart P, Le Contel C, Parant FJ, Chedid LA, Bahr GM. Selective modulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced death and cytokine production by various muramyl peptides. Infect Immun 1995; 63: 1105.
  • 35
    Shimizu T, Iwamoto Y, Yanagihara Y, Ikeda K, Achiwa K. Combined effects of synthetic lipid A analogs or bacterial lipopolysaccharide with glucosaminylmuramyl dipeptide on antitumor activity against Meth A fibrosarcoma in mice. Int J Immunopharmacol 1992; 14: 141520.
  • 36
    Nakatsuka M, Asagiri K, Noguchi S, Habara T, Kudo T. Nafamostat mesilate, a serine protease inhibitor, suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide synthesis and apoptosis in cultured human trophoblasts. Life Sci 2000; 67: 124350.
  • 37
    St Johnston D, Nusslein-Volhard C. The origin of pattern and polarity in the Drosophila embryo. Cell 1992; 68: 20119.
  • 38
    Belvin MP, Anderson KV. A conserved signaling pathway: the Drosophila toll-dorsal pathway. Ann Rev Cell Dev Biol 1996; 12: 393416.
  • 39
    Morisato D, Anderson KV. Signaling pathways that establish the dorsal-ventral pattern of the Drosophila embryo. Annu Rev Genet 1995; 29: 37199.
  • 40
    Schnare M, Barton GM, Holt AC, Takeda K, Akira S, Medzhitov R. Toll-like receptors control activation of adaptive immune responses. Nat Immunol 2001; 2: 94750.