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The kdr mutation occurs in the Mopti form of Anopheles gambiaes.s. through introgression


Mylène Weill, Institut des Sciences de l’Evolution, Génétique et Environnement, Université de Montpellier II (CC 065), 34095 Montpellier 05, France. Tel.: (33) 4 67 14 32 62; fax: (33) 4 67 14 36 22; e-mail:


Anopheles gambiaes.s. is a complex of sibling taxa characterized by various paracentric inversions. In west and central Africa, where several taxa are sympatric, a kdr mutation responsible for pyrethroid resistance has been described in only one (the S taxon), suggesting an absence of gene flow between them. Following a thorough sampling, we have found a kdr mutation in another taxon (M). To establish whether this mutation is the same event or not, the large intron upstream of the kdr mutation was sequenced to find polymorphic sites in susceptible/resistant and M/S mosquitoes. The low genetic diversity found in this DNA region indicates that a local genetic sweep has recently occurred. However, some polymorphic sites were found, and it is therefore concluded that the kdr mutation in the M taxon is not an independent mutation event, and is best explained by an introgression from the S taxon. These results are discussed within the context of possible gene flow between members of An. gambiae s.s. taxa, and with the possible spread of the kdr mutation in other closely related malaria vectors of the An. gambiae complex.