Review article Calcium hydroxide has been used in endodontology for many years. The aim of this paper is to review the various formulations of calcium hydroxide that have been described, with specific reference to the vehicle used to carry the compound. The requirements for a vehicle are described, and ex vivo and in vivo studiesreviewed. Vehicles can be classified into aqueous, viscous and oily, the clinical properties of calcium hydroxide changing depending on the vehicle. The review also describes the use of various active components that have been added to calcium hydroxide, including antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agents. This review will help clinicians to make informed judgements about which formulations of calcium hydroxide should be used for specific endodontic procedures.