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Keywords:

  • emphysema;
  • haemorrhage;
  • hydrogen peroxide;
  • irrigation complications;
  • root canal irrigation;
  • sodium hypochlorite

Abstract

Literature review and case reports

The literature concerning the aetiology, symptomatology and therapy of complications during root canal irrigation is reviewed. Three cases of inadvertent injection of sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide beyond the root apex are presented. Clinical symptoms are discussed, as well as preventive and therapeutic considerations.