Get access

TGF-β1 alone and in combination with calcium hydroxide is synergistic to TGF-β1 production by osteoblasts in vitro


  • This paper is submitted as a partial requirement for the Master of Science of Oral Biology degree from the Texas A & M University System Health Science Center, Dallas, Texas, USA.

Dr Andris Jaunberzins, Marquette University, School of Dentistry, Division of Endodontics, PO Box 1881, Milwaukee, WI 53201–1881, USA (fax: +414 288 6510; e-mail:




To examine the effects of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β1), and Ca(OH)2/TGF-β1 coadministration on TGF-β1 and interleukin-6 (IL-6) synthesis by early (subculture 1) and late (subculture 5) osteoblast cultures.


Early and late cultures were established using bone cells harvested from 21-day-old fetal rat calvaria. Cell cultures of both early and late osteoblasts were divided into four groups: group 1, control; group 2, cells challenged with Ca(OH)2; group 3, cells challenged with TGF-β1; and group 4, cells challenged with Ca(OH)2 and TGF-β1 in combination. TGF-β1 and IL-6 levels for all groups were determined using ELISA methodology.


anova and Tukey HS analyses revealed that osteoblasts of groups 3 and 4 significantly increased (P < 0.001) TGF-β1 synthesis in both early and late cultures of osteoblasts. IL-6 was not detected in any of the groups considered in this study.


Exogenous TGF-β1 has an autocrine effect on cell cultures of osteoblasts. Administration of TGF-β1 alone or in combination with Ca(OH)2 increases the synthesis of TGF-β1 in osteoblast cultures. Ca(OH)2 and TGF-β1 are compatible when placed in a culture of osteoblasts. Ca(OH)2 provides a favourable environment for the anabolic effects of TGF-β1.