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Keywords:

  • Bread-making quality;
  • composition;
  • glutenin subfractions;
  • mixing time;
  • polypeptide;
  • SDS–PAGE;
  • wheat cultivars

Five glutenin subfractions (R2–R6) were extracted by sequential centrifugation and addition of sodium chloride, from defatted flours of three wheat cultivars viz. Aubaine (extra-strong), Hereward (strong) and Riband (weak). Seven minutes mixing time was used to carry out fractionation on the basis of depolymerization of glutenin macropolymers (GMP) by using a 2-g Mixograph traces. Depolymerization of GMP occurred at much higher rates in dough of weak cultivars compared with strong and extra-strong cultivars. Protein content was also estimated in GMP (SDS-unextractable) and supernatant (SDS-extractable). Extra-strong cv. Aubaine contained maximum amount of all the glutenin fractions (R2–R6) followed by strong cv. Hereward and weak cv. Riband. Polypeptide compositions of different glutenin fractions were determined by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS–PAGE) under reduced and unreduced conditions, followed by densitometric scanning of stained patterns. The pattern areas of reduced fractions were divided into subareas representative of three main protein classes: high molecular weight (HMW) glutenin subunits; ω-gliadins and a mixture of low molecular (LMW) glutenin subunits and α, β and γ-gliadins. The amounts of various subunits were proportionate according to the molecular weight of the fractions in each cultivar. The ratio of HMW-glutenin subunits to the LMW-glutenin subunits in each cultivar were found to decrease with the fractionation from R2 to R6. Bread-making quality of three cultivars was also assessed by adding various fractions to a base flour and measuring mixograph peak development time and loaf volume in an optimized baking test. The quality of bread prepared from flour of weak cv. Riband was improved significantly by the addition of HMW fraction (R2) when measured in terms of loaf volume. However, the addition of LMW fraction (R+ R6) did not cause any appreciable improvement in bread quality over control. On the other hand, addition of HMW fraction (R2) in the flour of good bread wheat cv. Hereward caused adverse effects on the bread-making quality by disturbing the viscoelastic properties. Supplementation of R2 fractions in extra strong wheat cv. Aubaine caused marginal reduction in loaf volume over control. Therefore, the precise proportion present of the two classes of subunit is essential to achieving a proper balance between elastic and viscous properties.