Aim. To investigate the oral health status and oral microflora of children who have received heart and heart-lung transplants. Parental knowledge and current practice of oral health procedures by the child were also investigated.

Sample and method. Thirty-five children attending the Cardio-Thoracic Transplant Unit, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children were included. Measurements were compared with children matched by age and gender attending the trauma clinic at the Department of Paediatric Dentistry, Eastman Dental Hospital. Teeth were examined for the presence or absence of caries or enamel defects. Plaque deposition, gingivitis, gingival bleeding and gingival enlargement were measured and a swab was taken to look at the oral microbial flora. A questionnaire was used to assess parental knowledge of dental health procedures and the current practice of these.

Results. There were no significant differences between transplant and control children in caries experience, plaque or gingivitis. Children with heart or heart-lung transplants had significantly greater numbers of enamel defects and more gingival enlargement than control children, children in the heart transplant group had significantly more gingival bleeding. There was little difference in the dental knowledge and reported behaviour of the transplant group compared to the control group.

Conclusion. The dental needs of heart and heart-lung transplant patients treated at the Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children were similar to those of the control group in this study, however further improvement could be made in educating parents and children on the importance of caries prevention and good oral hygiene.