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This study was a causal comparative investigation of military and civilian nurses’ perceptions of selected aspects of work life The Work Environment Scale, the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Michigan Job Satisfaction Scale were administered to civilian and military samples matched on selected demographic variables MANOVA procedures failed to reveal significant differences on measures of burnout and morale Although military nurses were significantly more satisfied with issues of pay and fringe benefits, civilian nurses reported significantly greater job satisfaction, peer cohesion, supervisory support, decision making, autonomy, task orientation and opportunity to be innovative These findings and suggested changes are discussed with attention to differences between the military and civilian work setting