The present study is one part of a study evaluating group living (GL) care for demented elderly people in comparison with traditional institutional (TI) care The present report concentrates on personal and work-related effects on staff A staff training programme has been implemented, including relevant gerontological knowledge, principles of the new care concept, support and supervision Effects are evaluated by staff interviews, observation and staff turnover rates Results show increased knowledge and new emotional and social attitudes, resulting in higher competence and professional conduct towards patients as well as increased motivation, job satisfaction and quality of work for GL staff but not for TI staff Group living is now a rapidly developing form of care in Sweden