An ethnographic study was conducted within a Cambodian refugee community to discover information about Cambodian women's and men's knowledge and use of family planning methods This 18-month study included participant observation at community and calendrical events, and within families' homes Open-ended interviews were conducted with 53 informants from a variety of educational and socio-economic backgrounds Both women and men were interviewed through a female bilingual interpreter when the informant lacked proficiency in speaking English Major findings include a lack of knowledge among the sample about how the family planning methods work in the woman's body, and concerns about side-effects Implications include the need to include Cambodian women and men in the planning and implementation of family planning programmes