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Many patients cannot respond verbally and there is noted to be an increase in disonentation and confusional states in advanced age The problem of pain assessment for this group is therefore not only a large problem but potentially a growing one A pilot study was carried out to validate a chart for the assessment and control of pain using observed pain behaviours The researchers studied elderly patients with a variety of medical problems on three wards The study was done by observing pain behaviours, carrying out pain intervention and re-observing later to verify the effectiveness or otherwise of the intervention If this had been successful in moderating the behaviours it could reasonably be inferred that a method of monitoring and comforting verbally unresponsive patients had been found