A cross-cultural analysis of the use of the Edinburgh Post-Natal Depression Scale (EPDS) in health visiting practice
This report describes a project that developed and undertook initial validation of a Punjabi version of the Edinburgh Post-Natal Depression Scale (EPDS). A multi-disciplinary and multi-ethnic project team translated the EPDS from English to Punjabi. A pilot study indicated a high level of correlation between the two scales opening the way for a larger study in which a total of 98 bi-lingual women completed both the English and Punjabi version of the scale 6–8 weeks after delivery of their child. Of these a further 52 completed the scales on a second occasion, 16–18 weeks post-partum. A small sub-group (n=15) was subject to independent clinical assessment by a community psychiatric nurse (CPN) to determine their mental state, enabling the outcome of the assessment to be compared with the EPDS score. The scores of the English and Punjabi versions of the scale were analysed using Spearman correlation coefficient and the Bland Altman test. A high correlation was found between overall scores and most individual items on the scale. Furthermore, the independent assessment of mental health state indicated that a number of those women who scored 12 or above on the EPDS scale (the cut-off point for determining risk of post-natal depression (PND)) were diagnosed as having a post-natal depressive disorder by the CPN assessing them independently. Whilst the results to date are promising there is a need for further work to determine the validity, sensitivity and specificity of the Punjabi EPDS tool against international classification of depressive disorders and to establish optimal cut-off scores when using the Punjabi version of the EPDS.