What role do nurses play in Type 2 diabetes care in the community: a Delphi study
Objectives. To identify the views of nurses on their current and future roles in care in the community for people with Type 2 diabetes.
Method. A two-round Delphi study was used to elicit, and assess consensus on opinions from random samples of practice nurses, with a substantial role in the management of diabetes patients and diabetes specialist nurses. Both groups had defined levels of expertise in diabetes care and worked in Great Britain. The study instrument in round one comprised a questionnaire with 10 statement headings inviting opinions on the nursing role in the management and care of people with Type 2 diabetes. In the second round levels of agreement were elicited from responders on collated opinions from round one. The initial questionnaire also included closed questions to obtain a profile of current care delivered.
Results. Responders were 97 practice nurses and 69 diabetes specialist nurses with second round response rates of 93% and 86%, respectively. The 47 themes raised could be grouped under headings of clinical practice, responsibility, communication, knowledge, education/experience, rewards, and patients' roles. Many were common to several statements and both nurse groups. The level of agreement on the themes fed back was high, 85% of the 165 items achieved greater than 80% agreement. Agreement occurred for factors relating to clinical effectiveness, audit, knowledge, education and experience. Dissent occurred both within and between individual nurse groups on issues of responsibility, prescribing, service delivery, resources, and patient factors.
Conclusions. This Delphi study has identified key areas of consensus on the management of care for people with Type 2 diabetes in the community but also areas in which further work needs to be carried out to understand the differences found. Many of the discordant items relate to the separate roles and associated issues of the two nurse groups.