Background. Research on heart disease has increasingly included information on women's experiences. A number of recent studies present frequencies and comparisons of symptoms between men and women and there appears to be some variability in the symptoms especially among women. Even with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) where anticipated symptoms are more clear-cut, women can have vague or nonclassic symptoms.
Aim and method. Selected medical and nursing research on cardiac symptoms is examined for information on the cardiac warning symptom experiences unique to women. A search of the literature between 1995 and 2000 was done using CINAHL and MEDLINE . Terms used for the search included: cardiac symptoms, women's symptoms and symptom perception. The findings from this review are used to suggest implications for clinical practice.
Findings. Women experiencing AMI present with a variety of symptoms including chest pain. Less obvious symptoms include; fatigue, shortness of breath, back pain, oedema, and transient non-specific chest discomfort. These less dramatic and non-specific symptoms do not necessarily prompt further assessment for coronary disease in women.
Conclusion. Cardiac screening of women who present with cardiac risk factors and careful attention to less anticipated symptoms are critical factors that can improve the rapid identification of coronary disease in women. The unique physiological and sociological differences between women and men make further study of women's symptom experiences and perceptions important for health care providers. Further study of gender and ethnic differences in symptom patterns and recognition will help to improve screening and earlier identification of cardiac problems in women patients especially those without chest pain as a prodromal symptom.