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Keywords:

  • pre-operative anxiety;
  • choice of music;
  • control group;
  • cross-cultural validity;
  • music intervention;
  • nurse presence

Aim of the study.  To test the effects of music intervention on pre-operative anxiety in Chinese males undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate .

Rationale.  No studies have measured the effects of music intervention in reducing pre-operative anxiety for patients with transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Previous studies have examined the effects of music on pre-operative anxiety but have not examined the possible effects of the presence of a carer as an independent variable in pre-operative anxiety levels of patients in addition to the music intervention. The cultural validity of applying a music intervention to the reduction of pre-operative anxiety was also investigated.

Design.  A quasi-experimental design with three groups: music intervention, nurse presence and control group.

Method.  Thirty patients having TURP were randomly assigned ( n  = 10 each group) to one of the three groups. Pre- and post-test measures of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate and state anxiety using the Chinese State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (C-STAI) were obtained for the three groups.

Results.  The findings showed that the music intervention significantly reduced all blood pressure levels for the patients. A reduction in state anxiety level was also found for the music intervention group. No significant reductions in blood pressure, heart rate and state anxiety level were found in the nurse presence and control groups.

Conclusion.  The results support the cross-cultural validity of using a music intervention in pre-operative anxiety reduction, in this case for TURP patients waiting in the theatre holding area.