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Keywords:

  • bullying;
  • horizontal violence;
  • preregistration students;
  • socialization;
  • power;
  • nursing;
  • self-esteem

Background. Self-esteem is a major predictor of behaviour. Nurses with healthy self-esteem are likely to deliver therapeutic patient care, while those with low self-esteem are less likely to do so.

Aim. The aim of the 3-year study discussed here was to explore students’ self-esteem and how their experiences of preregistration education influenced its development over the period of the programme.

Research methods. Students participated in unstructured qualitative interviews at the beginning and end of their 3-year preregistration course and a grounded theory approach was used for data collection and analysis.

Findings. Bullying was found to be commonplace in the transition to becoming a nurse. Students were bullied and also witnessed patients being bullied by qualified nurses. The internalization of nursing norms meant that students then bullied others. Students’ self-esteem was low.

Conclusion. Bullying, and its effects on self-esteem, are perpetuated by practices within nursing. This situation will only be changed if nurses and educators transform their practice and the context in which bullying occurs. Otherwise, each new generation of nurses will continue to be socialized into negative practices which undermine both their own feelings of self-worth and standards of nursing care.