SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Fryxell, J.M., Greever, J., Sinclair, A.R.E. 1988 Why are migratory ungulates so abundant. American Naturalist, 68, 781 798.
  • Severinghaus, C.W. 1981 Overwinter weight loss in white-tailed deer in New York. New York Fish and Game Journal, 68, 61 67.
  • Albon, S.D., Clutton-Brock, T.H., Guinness, F.E. 1987 Early development and population dynamics in red deer. II. Density-independent cohort variation. Journal of Animal Ecology, 68, 69 81.
  • Albon, S.D., Clutton-Brock, T.H., Langvatn, R. 1992 Cohort variation in reproduction and survival: implications for population demography. The Biology of Deer (ed. R.D.Brown), pp. 15 21. Springer-Verlag, New York.
  • Albon, S.D. & Langvatn, R. 1992 Plant phenology and the benefits of migration in a temperate ungulate. Oikos, 68, 502 513.
  • Albon, S.D., Mitchell, B., Staines, B.W. 1983 Fertility and body weight in female red deer: a density-dependent relationship. Journal of Animal Ecology, 68, 969 980.
  • Andersen, R. & Srther, B-E. 1992 Functional response during winter of a herbivore, the moose, in relation to age and size. Ecology, 68, 542 550.
  • Bangs, E.E., Bailey, T.N., Portner, M.F. 1989 Survival rates of adult female moose on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Journal of Wildlife Management, 68, 557 563.
  • Bartlett, M.S. 1946 On the theoretical specification of sampling properties of autocorrelated time series. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Suppl., 68, 27 41.
  • Bergerud, A.T. 1971 The population dynamics of Newfoundland caribou. Wildlife Monographs, 68, 1 55.
  • Bjørnstad, O.N., Falck, W., Stenseth, N.C. 1995 A geographical gradient in small rodent density fluctuations: a statistical modelling approach. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London, B, 68, 127 133.
  • Bø, S. & Hjeljord, O. 1991 Do continental moose ranges improve during cloudy summers? Canadian Journal of Zoology, 68, 1875 1879.
  • Boertje, R.D., Valkenburg, P., McNay, M.E. 1996 Increase in moose, caribou, and wolves following wolf control in Alaska. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 68, 474 489.
  • Bousses, P., Reale, D., Chapuis, J.L. 1994 High wintertime mortality-rate in a population of corsican mouflons (ovis musimon) in the sub-arctic archopelago of Kerguelen. Mammalia, 68, 211 223.
  • Box, G.E.P. & Jenkins, G.M. 1970 Time Series Analysis: Forecasting and Control. Holen-Day, San Francisco.
  • Caswell, H., Nisbet, R.M., De Roos, A.M., Tuljapurkar, S. 1997 Structured population models: many methods, a few basic concepts. Structured Population Models in Marine, Terrestrial, and Freshwater Systems (eds S.Tuljapurkar & H.Caswell), pp. 3 17. Chapman & Hall.
  • Caughley, G. 1977Analyses of Vertebrate Populations. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
  • Cederlund, G. & Sand, H. 1991 Population dynamics and yield of a moose population without predators. Alces, 68, 31 40.
  • Chatfield, C. 1996 The Analysis of Time Series. An Introduction. Chapman & Hall, London.
  • Clutton-Brock, T.H. 1984 Reproductive effort and terminal investment in iteroparous animals. American Naturalist, 68, 212 229.
  • Clutton-Brock, T.H. 1991 The evolution of parental care. Monographs in Behaviour and Ecology, Princeton University Press, NJ.
  • Clutton-Brock, T.H., Guinnes, F.E., Albon, S.D. 1982Red Deer: Behaviour and Ecology of Two Sexes. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
  • Clutton-Brock, T.H., Illisus, A.W., Wilson, K., Grenfell, B.T., MacColl, A.D.C., Albon, S.D. 1997 Stability and instability in ungulate populations: an empirical analysis. American Naturalist, 68, 195 219.
  • Crète, M. & Courtois, R. 1997 Limiting factors may obscure regulation of moose (Cervidae: Alces alces) in unproductive boreal forests. Journal of Zoology, London, 68, 765 781.
  • Dennis, B. & Taper, M.L. 1994 Density-dependence in time series observations of natural populations: estimation and testing. Ecological Monographs, 68, 205 224.
  • Diggle, P.J. 1990 Time Series, a Biostatistical Introduction. Oxford Science Publications, Clarendon Press, Oxford.
  • Eberhardt, L.L. & Pitcher, K.W. 1992 A further analysis of the Nelchina caribou and wolf data. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 68, 385 395.
  • Engen, S., Lande, R., Srther, B.-E. 1997 Harvesting strategies for fluctuating populations based on uncertain population estimates. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 68, 201 212.
  • Ferguson, S.H. 1993 Use of cohort analysis to estimate abundance, recruitment and survivorship for Newfoundland moose, Alces, 68, 99 113.
  • Ferguson, S.H. & Messier, F. 1996 Can human predation of moose cause population cycles? Alces, 68, 149 161.
  • Forchhammer, M.C., Stenseth, N.L., Post, E., Langvatn, R. 1998 Population dynamics of Norwegian red deer: density dependence and climatic variation. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London B, 68, 341 350.
  • Fowler, C.W. 1987 A review of density dependence in populations of large mammals. Current Mammalogy, 68, 401 441.
  • Franzmann, A.W. & Schwarts, C.C. 1985 Moose twinning rates: a possible population condition assessment. Journal of Wildlife Management, 68, 394 396.
  • Fry, F.E.J. 1949 Statistics of a lake trout fishery. Biometrics, 68, 27 67.
  • Fryxell, J.M., Hussel, D.J.T., Lambert, A.B., Smith, P.C. 1991 Time lags and population fluctuations in white-tailed deer. Journal of Wildlife Management, 68, 377 385.
  • Fryxell, J.M., Mercer, W.E., Gellately, R.B. 1988 Population dynamics of Newfoundland moose using cohort analysis. Journal of Wildlife Management, 68, 14 21.
  • Gadgil, M. & Bossert, W. 1970 Life history consequences of natural selection. American Naturalist, 68, 1 24.
  • Gaillard, J.M., Delorme, D., Bouitin, J.M., VanLaere, G., Boisaubert, B. 1996 Body mass of roe deer fawns during winter in 2 contrasting populations. Journal of Wildlife Management, 68, 29 36.
  • Gaillard, J.-M., Festa-Biachet, M., Yoccoz, N.G. 1998 Population dynamics of large herbivores: variable recruitment with constant adult survival. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 68, 58 63.
  • Gaillard, J.-M., Sempèrè, A., Boutin, J.-M., Van Laere, G., Boisaubert, B. 1992 Effects of age and body weight on the proportion of females breeding in a population of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 68, 1541 1545.
  • Haagenrud, H. 1978 Layers of secondary dentine in incisors as age criteria in moose (Alces alces). Journal of Mammalogy, 68, 857 858.
  • Hilborn, R. & Walters, C.J. 1992Quantitative Fisheries Stock Assessment. Choice Dynamics and Uncertainty. Chapman & Hall, London.
  • Hurvich, C.M. & Tsai, C.-L. 1989 Regression and time series model selection in small samples. Biometrika, 68, 97 307.
  • Langvatn, R., ed.. 1977 Criteria of physical condition, growth and development in Cervidae: suitable for routine studies. Nordic Council for Wildlife Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
  • Langvatn, R. & Albon, S.D. 1986 Geographical clines in body weight of Norwegian red deer: a novel explanation of Bergman's rule? Holarctic Ecology, 68, 285 293.
  • Langvatn, R., Albon, S.D., Burkey, T., Clutton-Brock, T.H. 1996 Climate, plant phenology and variation in age at first reproduction in a temperate herbivore. Journal of Animal Ecology, 68, 653 670.
  • Lowe, V.P. 1969 Population dynamics of the red deer (Cervus elaphus) on Rhum. Journal of Animal Ecology, 68, 425 457.
  • May, R.M. 1981Theoretical Ecology: Principles and Applications. Blackwell, Oxford and Sinauer, Sunderland, Mass.
  • McCullough, D.R. 1979The George Reserve Deer Herd: Population Ecology of a K-Selected Species. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.
  • Mech, L.D., McRoberts, R.E., Peterson, R.O., Page, R.E. 1987 Relationship of deer and moose populations to previous winters’ snow. Journal of Animal Ecology, 68, 615 627.
  • Messier, F. 1991 The significance of limiting and regulating factors on the demography of moose and white tailed deer. Journal of Animal Ecology, 68, 377 393.
  • Messier, F. 1994 Ungulate population models with predation: a case study with the North American moose. Ecology, 68, 478 488.
  • Messier, F. & Crète, M. 1985 Moose–wolf dynamics and the natural regulation of moose populations. Oecologia, 68, 503 512.
  • Myers, R.A., Mertz, G., Barrowman, N.J. 1995 Spatial scales of variability in cod recruitment in the North Atlantic. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 68, 1849 1862.
  • Østgaard, J. 1987 Status of moose in Norway in the 1970s and early 1980s. Proceedings Second International Moose Symposium (eds G.Gøransson & S.Lavsund), pp. 63 8. Swedish Wildlife Research (Suppl. 1).
  • Owen-Smith, N. 1990 Demography of a large herbivore, the greater kudu Tragelapgus strepsiceros, in relation to rainfall, Journal of Animal Ecology, 68, 893 913.
  • Post, E. & Stenseth, N.C. 1998 Large-scale climatic fluctuation and population dynamics of moose and white tailed deer. Journal of Animal Ecology, 68, 537 543.
  • Post, E., Stenseth, N.C., Langvatn, R., Fromentin, J.-M. 1997 Global climate change and phenotypic variation among red deer cohorts. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London, B, 68, 1317 1324.
  • Renecker, L.A. & Hudson, R.J., eds. 1991 Wildlife Production: Conservation and Sustainable Development. AFES Misc. Pub. 91 6. University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska.
  • Resampling Stats 1997Resampling Stats, the New Statistics, Version 4.0.7. Resampling Stats, Inc. 612 N. Jackson Street, Arlington, Virginia.
  • Ricker, W.E. 1940 Relation of ‘;catch per unit effort’ to abundance and rate of exploitation. Journal of Fishery Resource Board, Canada., 68, 43 70.
  • Ricker, W.E. 1954 Stock and recruitment. Journal of Fishery Resource Board, Canada, 68, 559 923.
  • Riley, H. & SkjelvaÅg, A.O., eds. 1984 The Impact of Climate on Grass Production and Quality, Proceedings of the 10th General Meeting of the European Grassland Federation. A³s, Norway.
  • Royama, T. 1992Analytical Population Dynamics, Chapman & Hall, London.
  • Sakamoto, Y., Ishiguro, M., Kitagawa, G. 1986Akaike Information Criterion Statistics. Tokyo, KTK Scientific Publishers.
  • Sand, H. 1996 Life history strategies in moose (Alces alces). Geographical and temporal variation in body growth and reproduction. PhD Thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
  • SAS Institute 1995The SAS System for Windows, Version 6.11. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc.
  • SAS Institute 1993SAS/ETS User's Guide, Version 6 2nd edn Cary, NC SAS Institute Inc.
  • Sinclair, A.R.E. 1989 Population regulation in animals. Ecological Concepts (ed. Cherret, J.M. ), Blackwell Science, Oxford.
  • Sinclair, A.R.E. 1996 Mammal populations: fluctuation, regulation, life history theory and their implication for conservation. Frontiers of Population Ecology (eds R.B.Floyd, A.W.Sheppard & P.J.De Barro), CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.
  • Sinclair, A.R.E. & Pech, R.P. 1996 Density-dependence, stochasticity, compensation and predator regulation, Oikos, 68, 164 173.
  • Skogland, T. 1983 The effect of density-dependent resource limitation on size of wild reindeer. Oecologia, 68, 156 168.
  • Skogland, T. 1985 The effects of density-dependent resource limitation on the demography of wild reindeer, Journal of Animal Ecology, 68, 359 374.
  • Skogland, T. 1989 Comparative social organisation of wild reindeer in relation to food, mates and predation avoidance. Ethology Suppl. 29.
  • Solberg, E.J. & Srther, B.E. 1994 Male traits as life-history variables: annual variation in body mass and antler size in moose (Alces alces). Journal of Mammalogy, 68, 1069 1079.
  • Solberg, E.J. & Srther, B-E. 1998 Hunter observations of moose as a management tool. Wildlife Biology, in press.
  • Sørvig, K. 1986 Elgen i Vefsndalføret. Miljøvernavdelingen, Fylkesmannen i Nordland.
  • SPSS 1996SPSS for Windows, Release 7.5.1. Spss Inc.
  • Srther, B.E. 1985 Annual variation in carcass weight of Norwegian moose in relation to climate along a latitudinal gradient. Journal of Wildlife Management, 68, 977 983.
  • Srther, B.E. 1987 Pattern and processes in the population dynamics of the Scandinavian moose (Alces alces): some suggestions. Proceedings Second International Moose Symposium (eds G.Gøransson & S.Lavsund), pp. 525 37. Swedish Wildlife Research (Suppl. 1).
  • Srther, B.E. 1997 Environmental stochasticity and population dynamics of large herbivores: a search for mechanisms. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 68, 143 149.
  • Srther, B.E., Andersen, R., Hjeljord, O., Heim, M. 1996 Ecological correlates of regional variation in life history of the moose Alces Alces. Ecology, 68, 1493 1500.
  • Srther, B.E. & Haagenrud, H. 1983 Life history of the moose (Alces alces): fecundity rates in relation to age and carcass weight. Journal of Mammalogy, 68, 226 232.
  • Srther, B.E. & Haagenrud, H. 1985 Life history of the moose Alces alces: relationship between growth and reproduction, Holarctic Ecology, 68, 100 106.
  • Srther, B.E. & Heim, M. 1993 Ecological correlates of individual variation in age at maturity in female moose (Alces alces): the effects of environmental variability. Journal of Animal Ecology, 68, 482 489.
  • Srther, B.E., Solbraa, K., Sødal, D.P., Hjeljord, O. 1992 Sluttrapport Elg-Skog-Samfunn. Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Forskningsrapport 28.
  • Stenseth, N.C., Bjørnstad, O.N., Falck, W. 1996 Is spacing behaviour coupled with predation causing the microtine density cycle? A synthesis of current process-oriented and pattern-oriented studies. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London, B, 68, 1423 1435.
  • Sylvèn, S., Cederlund, G., Haagenrud, H. 1987 Theoretical considerations on regulated harvest of a moose population – a simulation study. Proceedings Second International Moose Symposium (eds G.Gøransson & S.Lavsund), pp. 643 55. Swedish Wildlife Research (Suppl. 1).
  • Turchin, P. 1995 Population regulation: old arguments and new synthesis. Population Dynamics (eds N.Capuccino & P.W.Price), pp. 19 40. Academic Press, London.
  • Van Soest, P.J. 1983Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminant, 2nd edn. O & B Books, Inc., Cornwallis. Oregon, USA.
  • White, R.G. 1983 Foraging patterns and their multiplier effects on productivity of northern ungulates. Oikos, 68, 577 584.