SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Amundsen, T. & Slagsvold, T. 1991 Hatching asynchrony: facilitating adaptive or maladaptive brood reduction? Proceedings of the International Ornithological Congress Acta. XX. 1707–1719.
  • Amundsen, T. & Stokland, J.N. 1988 Adaptive significance of asynchronous hatching in the shag: a test of the brood reduction hypothesis. Journal of Animal Ecology, 57, 329344.
  • Anderson, D.J. 1990 Evolution of obligate siblicide in boobies. 1. A test of the insurance-egg hypothesis. American Naturalist, 135, 334350.
  • Anderson, D.J., Budde, C., Apanius, V., Gomez, J.E.M., Bird, D.M. & Weathers, W.W. 1993 Prey size influences female competitive dominance in nestling american kestrels (Falco sparverius). Ecology, 74, 367376.
  • Arnold, T.W., Rohwer, F.C. & Armstrong, T. 1987 Egg viability, nest predation, and the adaptive significance of clutch size in prairie ducks. American Naturalist, 130, 643653.
  • Bengtsson, H. & Ryden, O. 1983 Parental feeding rate in relation to begging behaviour in asynchronously hatched broods of the Great tit Parus major. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 12, 243251.
  • Blanco, D.E., Yorio, P. & Boersma, P.D. 1996 Feeding behavior, size asymmetry, and food distribution in Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) chicks. Auk, 113, 496498.
  • Boland, C., Heinsohn, R. & Cockburn, A. 1997 Experimental manipulation of brood reduction and parental care in cooperatively breeding white-winged choughs. Journal of Animal Ecology, 66, 683691.
  • Bryant, D.M. 1978 Establishment of weight hierachies in the broods of house martins Delichon urbica. Ibis, 120, 1626.
  • Bryant, D.M. & Tatner, P. 1990 Hatching asynchrony, sibling competition and siblicide in nestling birds: studies of swiftlets and bee-eaters. Animal Behaviour, 39, 657671.
  • Clark, A.B. & Wilson, D.S. 1981 Avian breeding adaptations: hatching asynchrony, brood reduction, and nest failure. Quarterly Review of Biology, 56, 253277.
  • Drummond, H., Gonzalez, E. & Osorno, J.L. 1986 Parent–offspring cooperation in the blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii): social roles in infanticidal brood reduction. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 18, 365372.
  • Emlen, S.T., Wrege, P.H., Demong, N.J. & Hegner, R.E. 1991 Flexible growth rates in nestling white-fronted bee-eaters: a possible adaptation to short-term food shortage. Condor, 93, 591597.
  • Evans, R.M. 1996 Hatching asynchrony and survival of insurance offspring in obligate brood reducing species, the American white pelican. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 39, 203209.
  • Forbes, L.S. 1993 Avian brood reduction and parent–offspring ‘conflict’. American Naturalist, 142, 82117.
  • Forbes, M.R.L. & Ankney, C.D. 1987 Hatching asynchrony and food allocation within broods of Pied-billed Grebes, Podilymbus podiceps. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 65, 28722877.
  • Forbes, S., Thornton, S., Glassey, B., Forbes, M. & Buckley, N.J. 1997 Why parent birds play favourites. Nature, 390, 351352.
  • Forshaw, J. 1981Australian Parrots, 2nd edn. Lansdowne, Melbourne.
  • GENSTAT, 5 Committee 1993Genstat 5 Release 3 Reference Manual. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
  • Gottlander, K. 1987 Parental feeding behaviour and sibling competition in the pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca. Ornis Scandinavica, 18, 269276.
  • Greig-Smith, P. 1985 Weight differences, brood reduction and sibling competition among nestling stonechats Saxicola torquata (Aves: Turdidae). Journal of Zoology London A, 205, 453465.
  • Griffiths, R., Double, M.C., Orr, K. & Dawson, R.J.G. 1998 A simple DNA test to sex most birds. Molecular Ecology, 7, 10711075.
  • Hahn, D.C. 1981 Asynchronous hatching in the Laughing Gull: cutting losses and reducing rivalry. Animal Behaviour, 29, 421427.
  • Harper, R.G., Juliano, S.A. & Thompson, C.F. 1994 Intrapopulation variation in hatching synchrony in house wrens: Test of the individual-optimisation hypothesis. Auk, 111, 516524.
  • Harvey, P.H., Stenning, M.J. & Campbell, B. 1988 Factors influencing reproductive success in the pied flycatcher. Reproductive Success: Studies of Individual Variation in Contrasting Breeding Systems (ed. T. H.Clutton Brock.), pp. 189200. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
  • Heinsohn, R. 1995 Hatching asynchrony and brood reduction in cooperatively breeding white-winged choughs. Emu, 95, 15.
  • Hogstedt, G. 1980 Evolution of clutch size in birds: adaptive variation in relation to territory quality. Science, 210, 11481150.
  • Hussell, D.J.T. 1972 Factors affecting clutch size in Arctic passerines. Ecological Monographs, 42, 317364.
  • Kacelnik, A., Cotton, P.A., Stirling, L. & Wright, J. 1995 Food allocation among nestling starlings: sibling competition and the scope of parental choice. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 259, 259263.
  • Krebs, E.A. 1998a The breeding biology of crimson rosellas (Platycercus elegans) on Black Mountain, A.C.T. Australian Journal of Zoology, 46, 119136.
  • Krebs, E.A. 1998b Complex patterns of food allocation in asynchronously hatching broods of crimson rosellas. Animal Behaviour, in press.
  • Lack, D. 1947 The significance of clutch-size. Ibis, 89, 302352.
  • Lack, D. 1968Ecological Adaptations for Breeding in Birds. Methuen, Bristol.
  • Leonard, M. & Horn, A. 1996 Provisioning rules in tree swallows. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 38, 341347.
  • Lessells, C.M. & Avery, M.I. 1989 Hatching asynchrony in European bee-eaters Merops apiaster. Journal of Animal Ecology, 58, 815835.
  • Magrath, R.D. 1989 Hatching asynchrony and reproductive success in the blackbird. Nature, 339, 536538.
  • Magrath, R.D. 1990 Hatching asynchrony in altricial birds. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 65, 587622.
  • Magrath, R.D. 1991 Nestling weight and juvenile survival in the blackbird, Turdus merula. Journal of Animal Ecology, 60, 335351.
  • Magrath, R.D. 1992 Roles of egg mass and incubation pattern in establishment of hatching hierarchies in the blackbird (Turdus merula). Auk, 109, 474487.
  • Mock, D.W. 1985 Siblicidal brood reduction: the prey-size hypothesis. American Naturalist, 125, 327343.
  • Mock, D.W. & Parker, G.A. 1986 Advantages and disadvantages of egret and heron brood reduction. Evolution, 40, 459470.
  • Mock, D.W. & Ploger, B.J. 1987 Parental manipulation of optimal hatch asynchrony in cattle egrets: an experimental study. Animal Behaviour, 35, 150160.
  • Newton, I. 1986The Sparrowhawk. T & A D Poyser Ltd., Calton, U.K.
  • Nilsson, J. 1993 Energetic constraints on hatching asynchrony. American Naturalist, 141, 158166.
  • Nilsson, J.-A & ³. & Svensson, M. 1996 Sibling competition affects nestling growth strategies in marsh tits. Journal of Animal Ecology, 65, 825836.
  • Norusis, M.J. 1994SPSS® 6.1 Base System User's Guide. SPSS Inc., Chicago.
  • Nur, N. 1984 The consequences of brood size for breeding blue tits. II. Nestling weight, offspring survival, and optimal brood size. Journal of Animal Ecology, 53, 497517.
  • Osorno, J.L. & Drummond, H. 1995 The function of hatching asynchrony in the blue footed booby. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 37, 265273.
  • Ostreiher, R. 1997 Food division in the Arabian babbler nest: adult choice or nestling competition. Behavioural Ecology, 8, 233238.
  • Perrins, C.M. 1965 Population fluctuations and clutch size in the great tit, Parus major L. Journal of Animal Ecology, 34, 601647.
  • Perrins, C.M. & McCleery, R.J. 1989 Laying dates and clutch size in the Great tit. Wilson Bulletin, 101, 236253.
  • Pettifor, R.A., Perrins, C.M. & McCleery, R.H. 1988 Individual optimisation of clutch size in great tits. Nature, 336, 160162.
  • Ploger, B.J. & Mock, D.W. 1986 Role of sibling aggression in food distribution to nestling cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis). Auk, 103, 768776.
  • Poole, A.F. 1989Ospreys: a Natural and Unnatural History. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Price, K., Harvey, H. & Ydenberg, R. 1996 Begging tactics of nestling yellow-headed blackbirds, Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus, in relation to need. Animal Behaviour, 51, 421435.
  • Ricklefs, R.E. 1971 Avian postnatal development. Avian Biology, Vol. 1 (eds D.S.Farner & J.R.King), pp. 181. Academic Press, New York.
  • Ricklefs, R.E. 1993 Sibling competition, hatching asychrony, incubation period, and lifespan in altricial birds. Current Ornithology, Vol. 11 (ed. D.M.Power), pp. 199276. Plenum Press, New York.
  • Rowley, I. 1990 Behavioural Ecology of the Galah Eolophus roseicapillus in the Wheatbelt of Western Australia. Surrey Beatty, Sydney.
  • Rowley, I. & Chapman, G. 1991 The breeding biology, food, social organisation, demography and conservation of the Major Mitchell or pink cockatoo, Cacatua leadbeateri, on the margin of the Western Australian wheatbelt. Australian Journal of Zoology, 39, 211261.
  • Saunders, D.A. 1982 The breeding behaviour and biology of the short-billed form of the white-tailed black cockatoo Calyptorhynchus funereus. Ibis, 124, 422455.
  • Saunders, D.A., Smith, G.T. & Campbell, N.A. 1984 The relationship between body weight, egg weight, incubation period, nestling period and nest site in the Psittaciformes, Falconiformes, Strigiformes and Columbiformes. Australian Journal of Zoology, 32, 5765.
  • Slagsvold, T. 1985 Asynchronous hatching in passerine birds: influence of hatching failure and brood reduction. Ornis Scandinavica, 16, 8187.
  • Slagsvold, T. 1986 Asynchronous versus synchronous hatching in birds: experiments with the pied flycatcher. Journal of Animal Ecology, 55, 11151134.
  • Slagsvold, T., Amundsen, T. & Dale, S. 1995 Costs and benefits of hatching asynchrony in blue tits Parus caeruleus. Journal of Animal Ecology, 64, 563578.
  • Smith, G.T. 1991 Breeding ecology of the western long-billed corella, Cacatua pastinator pastinator. Wildlife Research, 18, 91110.
  • Snyder, N.F.R., Wiley, J.W. & Kepler, C.B. 1987 The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural History and Conservation of the Puerto Rican Parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology, Los Angeles, CA.
  • Stamps, J., Clark, A.B., Arrowood, P. & Kus, B. 1985 Parent–offspring conflict in budgerigars. Behaviour, 94, 140.
  • Stoleson, S.H. & Beissinger, S.R. 1995 Hatching asynchrony and the onset of incubation in birds, revisited. When Is the Critical Period? Current Ornithology, Vol. 12 (ed. D.M.Power), pp. 191270. Plenum Press, New York.
  • Stoleson, S.H. & Beissinger, S.R. 1997 Hatching asynchrony, brood reduction, and food limitation in a neotropical parrot. Ecological Monographs, 67, 131154.
  • Stouffer, P.C. & Power, H.W. 1990 Density effects on asynchronous hatching and brood reduction in the European starling. Auk, 107, 359366.
  • Teather, K.L. 1992 An experimental study of competition for food between male and female nestlings of the red-winged blackbird. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 31, 8187.
  • Thomas, B.T. 1984 Maguari stork nesting: juvenile growth and behaviour. Auk, 101, 812823.
  • Thomas, C.S. & Coulson, J.C. 1988 Reproductive success of kittiwake gulls, Rissa tridactyla. Reproductive Success: Studies of Individual Variation in Contrasting Breeding Systems (ed. T. H.Clutton Brock.), pp. 251262. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
  • Veiga, J. 1990 A comparative study of reproductive adaptations in house and tree sparrows. Auk, 107, 4559.
  • Veiga, J.P. & Hiraldo, F. 1990 Food habits and the survival and growth of nestlings in two sympatric kites (Milvus milvus and Milvus migrans). Holarctic Ecology, 13, 6271.
  • Village, A. 1990The Kestrel. T & A D Poyser, London, UK.
  • Waltman, J.R. & Beissinger, S.R. 1992 Breeding biology of the green-rumped parrotlet. Wilson Bulletin, 104, 6584.
  • Werschkul, D.F. 1979 Nestling mortality and the adaptive significance of early locomotion in the little blue heron. Auk, 96, 116130.
  • Wiebe, K.L. 1996 The insurance-egg hypothesis and extra reproductive value of last-laid eggs in clutches of American Kestrels. Auk, 113, 258261.
  • Wiebe, K.L. & Bortolotti, G.R. 1994a Energetic efficiency of reproduction: the benefits of asynchronous hatching for American kestrels. Journal of Animal Ecology, 63, 551560.
  • Wiebe, K.L. & Bortolotti, G.R. 1994b The role of food in determining hatching spans of birds: energetic constraints or facultative manipulation? Ecology, 75, 813823.
  • Wiebe, K.L. & Bortolotti, G.R. 1995 Food-dependent benefits of hatching asynchrony in American kestrels Falco sparverius. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 36, 4957.
  • Wiklund, C.G. 1985 Fieldfare Turdus pilaris breeding strategy: the importance of asynchronous hatching and resources needed for egg formation. Ornis Scandinavica, 16, 213221.
  • Wilson, R.T., Wilson, M.P. & Durkin, J.W. 1986 Breeding biology of the Barn Owl Tyto alba in central Mali. Ibis, 129, 8190.
  • Zach, R. 1982 Hatching asynchrony, egg size, growth, and fledging in tree swallows. Auk, 99, 695700.