SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • American Society of Mammalogists, Committee on Marine Mammals (1967) Standard measurements of seals. Journal of Mammalogy, 48, 459462.
  • Arnason, U. & Gullberg, A. (1996) Cytochrome b nucleotide sequences and the classification of five primary lineages of extant cetaceans. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 13, 407417.
  • Ashwell-Erickson, S., Elsner, R., Wartzok, D. (1979) Metabolism and nutrition of Bering Sea harbor and spotted seals. Alaska Fisheries: 200 years and 200 miles of change, Vol. 29 (ed. B.R.Melteff), pp. 651665. Proceedings of the 29th Alaska Science Conference, Alaska.
  • Bartholomew, G.A. (1954) Body temperature and respiratory and heart rates in the northern elephant seal. Journal of Mammalogy, 35, 211218.
  • Bartholomew, G.A. (1970) A model for the evolution of pinniped polygyny. Evolution, 24, 546559.
  • Barton, R.A., Purvis, A., Harvey, P.H. (1995) Evolutionary radiation of visual and olfactory brain systems in primates, bats and insectivores. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, Biological Sciences, 348, 381392.
  • Baum, B.R. (1992) Combining trees as a way of combining data sets for phylogenetic inference, and the desirability of combining gene trees. Taxon, 41, 310.
  • Bininda-Emonds, O.R.P. (1998) Towards comprehensive phylogenies: examples within the Carnivora (Mammalia). DPhil Dissertation, University of Oxford.
  • Bininda-Emonds, O.R.P. (2000) Factors influencing phylogenetic inference: a case study using the mammalian carnivores. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 16, 113126.
  • Bininda-Emonds, O.R.P. & Gittleman, J.L. (2000) Are pinnipeds functionally different from fissiped carnivores? The importance of phylogenetic comparative analyses. Evolution, 54, 10111023.
  • Bininda-Emonds, O.R.P., Gittleman, J.L., Purvis, A. (1999) Building large trees by combining phylogenetic information: a complete phylogeny of the extant Carnivora (Mammalia). Biological Reviews, 74, 143175.
  • Bininda-Emonds, O.R.P. & Russell, A.P. (1996) A morphological perspective on the phylogenetic relationships of the extant phocid seals (Mammalia: Carnivora: Phocidae). Bonner zoologische Monographien, 41, 1256.
  • Boness, D.J. & Bowen, W.D. (1996) The evolution of maternal care in pinnipeds. BioScience, 46, 645654.
  • Brannon, R.D. (1985) Hematological characteristics of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in central and northeastern Alaska. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 63, 5862.
  • Brown, J.H. & Lasiewski, R.C. (1972) Metabolism of weasels: the cost of being long and thin. Ecology, 53, 939943.
  • Castellini, J.M., Meiselman, H.J., Castellini, M.A. (1996) Understanding and interpreting hematocrit measurements in pinnipeds. Marine Mammal Science, 12, 251264.
  • Cattet, M.R.L., Atkinson, S.N., Polischuk, S.C., Ramsay, M.A. (1997) Predicting body mass in polar bears: is morphometry useful? Journal of Wildlife Management, 61, 10831090.
  • Churchfield, S. (1998) Habitat use by water shrews, the smallest of amphibious mammals. Behaviour and Ecology of Riparian Mammals, Vol. 71 (eds N.Dunstone & M.Gorman), pp. 4968. Symposia of the Zoological Society of London, Cambridge.
  • Clutton-Brock, T.H., Harvey, P.H., Rudder, B. (1977) Sexual dimorphism, socionomic sex ratio, and body weight in primates. Nature, 269, 797800.
  • Díaz-Uriarte, R. & Garland, T. Jr (1996) Testing hypotheses of correlated evolution using phylogenetically independent contrasts: sensitivity to deviations from Brownian motion. Systematic Biology, 45, 2747.
  • Díaz-Uriarte, R. & Garland, T. Jr (1998) Effects of branch length errors on the performance of phylogenetically independent contrasts. Systematic Biology, 47, 654672.
  • Dunstone, N. (1998) Adaptations to the semi-aquatic habit and habitat. Behaviour and Ecology of Riparian Mammals, Vol. 71 (eds N.Dunstone & M.Gorman), pp. 116. Symposia of the Zoological Society of London, Cambridge.
  • Dunstone, N. & O'Connor, R.J. (1979) Optimal foraging in an amphibious mammal. I. The aqualung effect. Animal Behaviour, 27, 11821194.
  • Economos, A.C. (1979) On structural theories of basal metabolic rate. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 80, 445450.
  • Economos, A.C. (1980) Brain-lifespan conjecture: a re-evaluation of the evidence. Gerontology, 26, 8289.
  • Eisenberg, J.F. (1981) The Mammalian Radiations: an analysis of trends in evolution, adaptation, and behavior. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
  • Eisenberg, J.F. & Wilson, D.E. (1978) Relative brain size and feeding strategies in the Chiroptera. Evolution, 32, 740751.
  • Elgar, M.A. & Harvey, P.H. (1987) Basal metabolic rates in mammals: allometry, phylogeny and ecology. Functional Ecology, 1, 2536.
  • Estes, J.A. (1980) Enhydra lutris. Mammalian Species, 133, 18.
  • Estes, J.A. (1989) Adaptations for aquatic living by carnivores. Carnivore Behavior, Ecology, and Evolution, Vol. 1 (ed. J.L.Gittleman), pp. 242282. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York.
  • Felsenstein, J. (1985) Phylogenies and the comparative method. American Naturalist, 125, 115.
  • Ferguson, S.H., Virgl, J.A., Larivière, S. (1996) Evolution of delayed implantation and associated grade shifts in life history traits of North American carnivores. Écoscience, 3, 717.
  • Fish, F.E. (1993) Influence of hydrodynamic design and propulsive mode on mammalian swimming energetics. Australian Journal of Zoology, 42, 79101.
  • Fish, F.E. & Stein, B.R. (1991) Functional correlates of differences in bone density among terrestrial and aquatic genera in the family Mustelidae (Mammalia). Zoomorphology, 110, 339345.
  • Fish, P.A. (1898) The brain of the fur seal, Callorhinus ursinus; with a comparative description of those of Zalophus californianus, Phoca vitulina, Ursus americanus and Monachus tropicalis. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 8, 5798.
    Direct Link:
  • Flynn, J.J. (1988) Ancestry of sea mammals. Nature, 334, 383384.
  • Folk, G.E. Jr, Folk, M.A., Craighead, D. (1977) A comparison of body temperature of least weasels and wolverines. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A, 58, 229234.
  • Garland, T. Jr, Dickerman, A.W., Janis, C.M., Jones, J.A. (1993) Phylogenetic analysis of covariance by computer simulation. Systematic Biology, 42, 265292.
  • Gittleman, J.L. (1984) The behavioural ecology of carnivores. PhD Dissertation, University of Sussex.
  • Gittleman, J.L. (1985) Carnivore body size: ecological and taxonomic correlates. Oecologia, 67, 540554.
  • Gittleman, J.L. (1986a) Carnivore brain size, behavioral ecology, and phylogeny. Journal of Mammalogy, 67, 2336.
  • Gittleman, J.L. (1986b) Carnivore life history patterns: allometric, phylogenetic, and ecological associations. American Naturalist, 127, 744771.
  • Gittleman, J.L. (1989) The comparative approach in ethology: aims and limitations. Perspectives in Ethology, Vol. 8: Whither ecology? (eds P.P.G.Bateson & P.H.Klopfer), pp. 5583. Plenum Press, New York.
  • Gittleman, J.L. (1991) Carnivore olfactory bulb size: allometry, phylogeny and ecology. Journal of Zoology, 225, 253272.
  • Gittleman, J.L. (1993) Carnivore life histories: a re-analysis in the light of new models. Mammals as Predators, Vol. 65 (eds N.Dunstone & M.L.Gorman), pp. 6586. Symposia of the Zoological Society of London, Oxford.
  • Gittleman, J.L. (1994) Female brain size and parental care in carnivores. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 91, 54955497.
  • Gittleman, J.L. & Kot, M. (1990) Adaptation: statistics and a null model for estimating phylogenetic effects. Systematic Zoology, 39, 227241.
  • Gittleman, J.L. & Van Valkenburgh, B. (1997) Sexual dimorphism in the canines and skulls of carnivores: the effects of size, phylogeny, and behavioural ecology. Journal of Zoology, 242, 97117.
  • Harrison, R.J. (1969) Reproduction and reproductive organs. The Biology of Marine Mammals (ed. H.T.Andersen), pp. 253348. Academic Press, New York.
  • Harrison, R.J. & Kooyman, G.L. (1968) General physiology of the Pinnipedia. The Behavior and Physiology of Pinnipeds (eds R.J.Harrison, R.C.Hubbard, R.S.Peterson, C.E.Rice & R.J.Schusterman), pp. 211296. Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York.
  • Harvey, P.H. (1982) On rethinking allometry. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 95, 3741.
  • Harvey, P.H. & Krebs, J.R. (1990) Comparing brains. Science, 249, 140146.
  • Harvey, P.H. & Pagel, M.D. (1991) The Comparative Method in Evolutionary Biology. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Hawkey, C. (1977) The haematology of exotic mammals. Comparative Clinical Haematology (eds R.K.Archer & L.B.Jeffcott), pp. 103160. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.
  • Hennemann, W.W. III, Thompson, S.D., Konecny, M.J. (1983) Metabolism of crab eating foxes, Cerdocyon thous: ecological influences on the energetics of canids. Physiological Zoology, 56, 319324.
  • Hochachka, P.W. (1992) Metabolic biochemistry and the making of a mesopelagic mammal. Experientia, 48, 570575.
  • Hofman, M.A. (1983) Energy metabolism, brain size and longevity in mammals. Quarterly Review of Biology, 58, 495512.
  • Howell, A.B. (1930) Aquatic Mammals: their adaptations to life in the water. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.
  • Hubbard, R.C. (1968) Husbandry and laboratory care of pinnipeds. The Behavior and Physiology of Pinnipeds (eds R.J.Harrison, R.C.Hubbard, R.S.Peterson, C.E.Rice & R.J.Schusterman), pp. 299358. Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York.
  • Irving, L. (1969) Temperature regulation in marine mammals. The Biology of Marine Mammals (ed. H.T.Andersen), pp. 147174. Academic Press, New York.
  • Irving, L. (1973) Aquatic mammals. Comparative Physiology of Thermoregulation, Vol. 3 (ed. G.C.Whittow), pp. 4796. Academic Press, New York.
  • Irwin, D.M., Kocher, T.D., Wilson, A.C. (1991) Evolution of the cytochrome b gene of mammals. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 32, 128144.
  • Jerison, H.J. (1973) Evolution of the Brain and Intelligence. Academic Press, New York.
  • Kenyon, K.W. (1981) Sea otter –Enhydra lutris (Linnaeus, 1758). Handbook of Marine Mammals, Vol. 1: The walrus, sea lions, fur seals and sea otter (eds S.H.Ridgway & R.J.Harrison), pp. 209223. Academic Press, London.
  • King, J.E. (1983) Seals of the World, 2nd edn. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York.
  • Kleiber, M. (1975) The Fire of Life: an introduction to animal energetics. R.E. Kreiger Publishing Co., Huntington, New York.
  • Kooyman, G.L. (1981) Weddell seal –Leptonychotes weddelli Lesson, 1826. Handbook of Marine Mammals, Vol. 2: Seals (eds S.H.Ridgway & R.J.Harrison), pp. 275296. Academic Press, London.
  • Kooyman, G.L. (1985) Physiology without restraint in diving mammals. Marine Mammal Science, 1, 166178.
  • Lane, R.A.B., Morris, R.J.H., Sheedy, J.W. (1972) A haematological study of the southern elephant seal, Mirounga leonina (Linn.). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A, 42, 841850.
  • Lapennas, G.N. & Reeves, R.B. (1982) Respiratory properties of blood of the gray seal, Halichoerus grypus. Journal of Comparative Physiology B, 149, 4956.
  • Lavergne, A., Douzery, E., Stichler, T., Catzeflis, F.M., Springer M.S. (1996) Interordinal mammalian relationships: evidence for paenungulate monophyly is provided by complete mitochondrial 12S rRNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 6, 245258.
  • Lavigne, D.M., Innes, S., Worthy, G.A.J., Kovacs, K.M., Schmitz, O.J., Hickie, J.P. (1986) Metabolic rates of seals and whales. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 64, 279284.
  • Lenfant, C. (1969) Physiological properties of blood of marine mammals. The Biology of Marine Mammals (ed. H.T.Andersen), pp. 95116. Academic Press, New York.
  • Lenfant, C., Johansen, K., Torrance, J.D. (1970) Gas transport and oxygen storage capacity in some pinnipeds and the sea otter. Respiration Physiology, 9, 277286.
  • Little, G.J. (1995) Body temperature in the newborn southern elephant seal, Mirounga leonina, at Macquarie Island. Marine Mammal Science, 11, 480490.
  • Losos, J.B., Jackman, T.R., Larson, A., De Queiroz, K., Rodríguez-Schettino, L. (1998) Contingency and determinism in replicated adaptive radiations of island lizards. Science, 279, 21152118.
  • Mace, G.M., Harvey, P.H., Clutton-Brock, T.H. (1980) Is brain size an ecological variable? Trends in Neurosciences, 3, 193196.
  • Martins, E.P. (1996) Phylogenies, spatial autoregression, and the comparative method: a computer simulation test. Evolution, 50, 17501765.
  • McLaren, I.A. (1967) Seals and group selection. Ecology, 48, 104110.
  • Melrose, W.D., Feast, M.M., Woods, R., McMinn, A., Jupe, D.M.L., Bell, P.A. (1995) Haematology, red cell enzymes, and red cell metabolic intermediates of 20 wild southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) from Macquarie Island. Comparative Haematology International, 5, 16.
  • Morrison, P. (1962) Body temperatures in some Australian mammals. III. Cetacea (Megaptera). Biological Bulletin, 123, 154169.
  • Morrison, P.R. & Ryser, F.A. (1952) Weight and body temperature in mammals. Science, 116, 231232.
  • Novacek, M.J. (1992) Mammalian phylogeny: shaking the tree. Nature, 356, 121125.
  • Nowak, R.M. (1991) Walker’s Mammals of the World, 5th edn. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.
  • Osburn, R.C. (1903) Adaptation to aquatic, arboreal, fossorial and cursorial habits in mammals. I. Aquatic adaptations. American Naturalist, 37, 651665.
  • Pagel, M. (1993) Seeking the evolutionary regression coefficient: an analysis of what comparative methods measure. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 164, 191205.
  • Parker, S.P., ed. (1990) Grzimek’s Encyclopedia of Mammals. McGraw-Hill Co., New York.
  • Platt, T. & Silvert, W. (1981) Ecology, physiology, allometry and dimensionality. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 93, 855860.
  • Purvis, A., Gittleman, J.L., Luh, H.-K. (1994) Truth or consequences: effects of phylogenetic accuracy on two comparative methods. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 167, 293300.
  • Purvis, A. & Rambaut, A. (1995a) Comparative Analysis by Independent Contrasts (CAIC): a statistical package for the Apple Macintosh, user’s guide.
  • Purvis, A. & Rambaut, A. (1995b) Comparative analysis by independent contrasts (CAIC): an Apple Macintosh application for analysing comparative data. Computer Applications in the Biosciences, 11, 247251.
  • Ragan, M.A. (1992) Phylogenetic inference based on matrix representation of trees. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 1, 5358.
  • Ralls, K. (1977) Sexual dimorphism in mammals: avian models and unanswered questions. American Naturalist, 111, 917938.
  • Repenning, C.A. (1976) Adaptive evolution of the sea lions and walruses. Systematic Zoology, 25, 375390.
  • Rice, W.R. (1989) Analyzing tables of statistical tests. Evolution, 43, 223225.
  • Ridgway, S.H. (1972) Homeostasis in the aquatic environment. Mammals of the Sea: biology and medicine (ed. S.H.Ridgway), pp. 590747. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.
  • Robin, E.D. (1973) The evolutionary advantages of being stupid. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 16, 369380.
  • Sacher, G.A. & Staffeldt, E.F. (1974) Relation of gestation time to brain weight for placental mammals: implications for the theory of vertebrate growth. American Naturalist, 108, 593615.
  • Schmitz, O.J. & Lavigne, D.M. (1984) Intrinsic rate of increase, body size, and specific metabolic rate in marine mammals. Oecologia, 62, 305309.
  • Scholander, P.F. (1940) Experimental investigations on the respiratory function in diving mammals and birds. Hvalrådets Skrifter, 22, 1131.
  • Stahl, W.R. (1967) Scaling of respiratory variables in mammals. Journal of Applied Physiology, 22, 453460.
  • Stanhope, M.J., Smith, M.R., Waddell, V.G., Porter, C.A., Shivji, M.S., Goodman, M. (1996) Mammalian evolution and the interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein (IRBP) gene: convincing evidence for several superordinal clades. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 43, 8392.
  • Stein, B.R. (1988) Morphology and allometry in several genera of semiaquatic rodents (Ondatra, Nectomys, and Oryzomys). Journal of Mammalogy, 69, 500511.
  • Stein, B.R. (1989) Bone density and adaptation in semi-aquatic mammals. Journal of Mammalogy, 70, 467476.
  • Stephan, H. (1972) Evolution of primate brains: a comparative anatomical investigation. The Functional and Evolutionary Biology of Primates (ed. R.Tuttle), pp. 155174. Aldine Atherton, Chicago.
  • Stirling, I. (1983) The evolution of mating systems in pinnipeds. Advances in the Study of Mammalian Behavior (eds J.F.Eisenberg & D.G.Kleiman), pp. 489527. Special Publication no. 7. The American Society of Mammalogists, Shippensburg, PA.
  • Tarasoff, F.J. (1972) Comparative aspects of the hind limbs of the river otter, sea otter, and seals. Functional Anatomy of Marine Mammals, Vol. 1 (ed. R.J.Harrison), pp. 333359. Academic Press, London.
  • Taylor, W.P. (1914) The problem of aquatic adaptation in the Carnivora, as illustrated in the osteology and evolution of the sea-otter. University of California Publications in Geology, 7, 465495.
  • Wall, W.P. (1983) The correlation between high limb-bone density and aquatic habits in recent mammals. Journal of Paleontology, 57, 197207.
  • Weckerly, F.W. (1998) Sexual-size dimorphism: influence of mass and mating systems in the most dimorphic mammals. Journal of Mammalogy, 79, 3352.
  • Wickham, L.L., Costa, D.P., Elsner, R. (1990) Blood rheology of captive and free-ranging northern elephant seals and sea otters. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 68, 375380.
  • Wickham, L.L., Elsner, R., White, F.C., Cornell, L.H. (1989) Blood viscosity in phocid seals: possible adaptations to diving. Journal of Comparative Physiology B, 159, 153158.
  • Williams, T.M. (1998) Physiological challenges in semi-aquatic mammals: swimming against the energetic tide. Behaviour and Ecology of Riparian Mammals, Vol. 71 (eds N.Dunstone & M.Gorman), pp. 1729. Symposia of the Zoological Society of London, Cambridge.
  • Williams, T.M. (1999) The evolution of cost efficient swimming in marine mammals: limits to energetic optimization. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 354, 193201.
  • Wirz, K. (1950) Studien über die Cerebralisation: zur Quantitativen Bestimmung der Rangordnung bei Säugetieren. Acta Anatomica, 9, 134196.
  • Wolff, J.O. & Guthrie, R.D. (1985) Why are aquatic small mammals so large? Oikos, 45, 365373.
  • Worthy, G.A.J. & Hickie, J.P. (1986) Relative brain size in marine mammals. American Naturalist, 128, 445459.
  • Wyss, A.R. (1987) The walrus auditory region and the monophyly of pinnipeds. American Museum Novitates, 2871, 131.
  • Wyss, A.R. (1988) Evidence from flipper structure for a single origin of pinnipeds. Nature, 334, 427428.
  • Wyss, A.R. (1989) Flippers and pinniped phylogeny: has the problem of convergence been overrated? Marine Mammal Science, 5, 343360.
  • Wyss, A.R. (1994) The evolution of body size in phocids: some ontogenetic and phylogenetic observations. Contributions in Marine Mammal Paleontology Honoring Frank C. Whitmore Jr, Vol. 29 (eds A.Berta & T.A.Deméré), pp. 6975. Proceedings of the San Diego Society of Natural History, San Diego.