SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Badcock, R.M. (1949) Studies in stream life in tributaries of the Welsh Dee. Journal of Animal Ecology, 18, 193208.
  • Closs, G.P. & Lake, P.S. (1994) Spatial and temporal variation in the structure of an intermittent-stream food web. Ecological Monographs, 64, 121.
  • Cohen, J.E., Briand, F. & Newman, C.M. (1986) A stochastic theory of community food webs. III. Predicted and observed lengths of food chains. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B, 228, 317353.
  • Cohen, J.E., Newman, C.M. & Briand, F. (1985) A stochastic theory of community food webs. II. Individual webs. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B, 224, 449461.
  • Cohen, J.E. & Newman, C.M. (1985) A stochastic theory of community food webs I. Models and aggregated data. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B, 224, 421448.
  • Dobson, M.K. (1990) Animal communities and litter retention in streams: field manipulations. PhD Thesis, University of London.
  • Hall, S.J. & Raffaelli, D.G. (1991) Food web patterns: lessons from a species-rich web. Journal of Animal Ecology, 60, 823842.
  • Hall, S.J. & Raffaelli, D.G. (1993) Food webs. Theory and reality. Advances in Ecological Research, 24, 187239.
  • Hansen, R.A., Hart, D.D. & Merz, R.A. (1991) Flow mediates predator–prey interactions between triclad flatworms and larval black flies. Oikos, 60, 187196.
  • Hartley, P.H.T. (1948) Food and feeding relationships in a community of freshwater fishes. Journal of Animal Ecology, 17, 114.
  • Hildrew, A.G. (1992) Food webs and species interactions. The rivers handbook (eds P.Calow & G.Petts), pp. 309330. Blackwell Science, Oxford.
  • Hildrew, A.G., Townsend, C.R. & Hasham, A. (1985) The predatory Chironomidae of an iron-rich stream: feeding ecology and food web structure. Ecological Entomology, 10, 403413.
  • Huxham, M., Beany, S. & Raffaelli, D. (1996) Do parasites reduce the chances of triangulation in a real food web? Oikos, 76, 284300.
  • Jones, J.R.E. (1948) The fauna of four streams in the ‘black mountain’ district of South Wales. Journal of Animal Ecology, 17, 5165.
  • Jones, J.R.E. (1949a) An ecological study of the River Rheidol, North Cardiganshire, Wales. Journal of Animal Ecology, 18, 6788.
  • Jones, J.R.E. (1949b) A further ecological study of calcareous streams in the ‘black mountain’ district of South Wales. Journal of Animal Ecology, 18, 142159.
  • Jones, J.R.E. (1950) A further ecological study of the River Rheidol: the food of the common insects of the main-stream. Journal of Animal Ecology, 19, 159174.
  • Keitt, T.H. (1997) Stability and complexity on a lattice: coexistence of species in an individual-based food web model. Ecological Modelling, 102, 243258.
  • Lancaster, J. & Hildrew, A.G. (1993) Characterising in-stream flow refugia. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 50, 16631675.
  • Lancaster, J. & Robertson, A. (1995) Microcrustacean prey and macroinvertebrate predators in a stream food web. Freshwater Biology, 34, 123134.
  • Martinez, N. (1991) Artifacts or attributes? Effects of resolution on the Little Rock Lake food web. Ecological Monographs, 61, 367392.
  • Martinez, N. (1992) Constant connectance in community food webs. American Naturalist, 140, 12081218.
  • Martinez, N. (1994) Scale-dependent constraints on food-web structure. American Naturalist, 144, 935953.
  • McCullagh, P. & Nelder, J.A. (1989) Generalized linear models. Chapman & Hall, London.
  • Memmott, J., Martinez, N.D. & Cohen, J.E. (2000) Predators, parasitoids and patogens: species richness, trophic generality and body sizes in a natural food web. Journal of Animal Ecology, 69, 115.
  • Minshall, G.W. (1967) Role of allochthonous detritus in the trophic structure of a woodland springbrook community. Ecology, 48, 139149.
  • Murtaugh, P. (1994) Statistical analysis of food webs. Biometrics, 50, 11991202.
  • Murtaugh, P.A. & Kollath, J.P. (1997) Variation of trophic fractions and connectance in food webs. Ecology, 78, 13821387.
  • Percival, E. & Whitehead, H.A. (1929) A quantitative study of the fauna of some types of stream-bed. Journal of Animal Ecology, 17, 282314.
  • Pimm, S.L., Lawton, J.H. & Cohen, J.E. (1991) Food web patterns and their consequences. Nature, 350, 669674.
  • Polis, G.A. (1991) Complex trophic interactions in deserts: an empirical critique of food web theory. American Naturalist, 138, 123155.
  • Rejmánek, M. & Starý, P. (1979) Connectance in real biotic communities and critical values for stability of model ecosystems. Nature, 280, 311313.
  • Schmid, P.E. (2000) Fractal properties of habitat and patch structure in benthic ecosystems. Advances in Ecological Research, 30, 339401.
  • Schmid, P.E. & Schmid-Araya, J.M. (1997) Predation on meiobenthic assemblages: resource use of a tanypod guild (Chironomidae, Diptera) in a gravel stream. Freshwater Biology, 38, 6791.
  • Schmid-Araya, J.M., Hildrew, A.G., Robertson, A., Schmid, P.E. & Winterbottom, J. (2002) The importance of meiofauna in food webs: evidence from an acid stream. Ecology, 85, 12711285.
  • Schoenly, K., Beaver, R.A. & Heumer, T.A. (1991) On the trophic relations of insects: a food web approach. American Naturalist, 137, 597638.
  • Sokal, R.R. & Rohlf, F.J. (1981) Biometry. W.H. Freeman Co, San Francisco, CA.
  • Solow, A.R. (1996) On the goodness of fit of the cascade model. Ecology, 77, 12941297.
  • Tavares-Cromar, A.F. & Williams, D.D. (1996) The importance of temporal resolution in food web analysis: evidence from a detritus-based stream. Ecological Monographs, 66, 91113.
  • Tokeshi, M. (1999) Species coexistence: ecological and evolutionary perspectives. Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK.
  • Wagner, R., Schmidt, H.H. & Marxsen, J. (1993) The hyporheic habitat of the Bretitenbach, spatial structure and physicochemical conditions as a basis for benthic life. Limnologica, 23, 285294.
  • Ward, J.V., Bretschko, G., Brunke, M., Danielopol, D., Gibert, J., Gonser, T. & Hildrew, A.G. (1998) The boundaries of river systems. The metazoan perspective. Freshwater Biology, 40, 531569.
  • Wardle, D.A., Yeates, G.W., Watson, R.N. & Nicholson, K.S. (1995) Development of the decomposer food web, trophic relationships and ecosystem properties during a three-year primary succession of sawdust. Oikos, 73, 155166.
  • Warren, P.H. (1990) Variation in food-web structure: the determinants of connectance. American Naturalist, 136, 689700.
  • Williams, R.J. & Martinez, N.D. (2000) Simple rules yield complex food webs. Nature, 404, 180183.
  • Winemiller, K.O. (1989) Must connectance decline with species richness? American Naturalist, 134, 960968.
  • Winemiller, K.O., Pianka, E.R., Vitt, L.J. & Joern, A. (2001) Food web laws or niche theory? Six independent empirical tests. American Naturalist, 158, 193199.
  • Winemiller, K.O. & Polis, G.A. (1996) Food webs: What can they tell us about the world? Food webs integration of patterns and dynamics (eds G.A.Polis & K.O.Winemiller), pp. 122. Chapman & Hall, New York.
  • Woodward, G. & Hildrew, A.G. (2001) Invasion of a stream food web by a new top predator. Journal of Animal Ecology, 70, 273288.
  • Woodward, G. & Hildrew, A.G. (2002) Body-size determinants of niche overlap and intraguild predation within a complex food web. Journal of Animal Ecology, 71, 10631074.