SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Bendich, A. & Olson, J.A. (1989) Biological actions of carotenoids. FASEB Journal, 3, 19271932.
  • Blount, J.D., Houston, D.C. & Møller, A.P. (2000) Why egg yolk is yellow. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 15, 4749.
  • Brinkhof, M.W.G., Heeb, P., Kölliker, M. & Richner, H. (1999) Immunocompetence of nestling great tits in relation to rearing environment and parentage. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 266, 23152322.
  • Buechler, K., Fitze, P.S., Gottstein, B., Jacot, A. & Richner, H. (2002) Parasite-induced maternal response in a natural bird population. Journal of Animal Ecology, 71, 247252.
  • Cheng, S. & Lamont, S.J. (1988) Genetic-analysis of immunocompetence measures in a white leghorn chicken line. Poultry Science, 67, 989995.
  • Christe, P., Richner, H. & Oppliger, A. (1996a) Of great tits and fleas: sleep baby sleep… Animal Behaviour, 52, 10877092.
  • Christe, P., Richner, H. & Oppliger, A. (1996b) Begging, food provisioning, and nestling competition in great tit broods infested with ectoparasites. Behavioral Ecology, 7, 127131.
  • Clayton, D.H. & Moore, J. (1997) Host–Parasite Evolution. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Clutton-Brock, T.H. (1991) The Evolution of Parental Care. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
  • Clutton-Brock, T.H., Albon, S.D. & Guinness, F.E. (1985) Parental investment and sex-differences in juvenile mortality in birds and mammals. Nature, 313, 131133.
  • Dhondt, A.A. (1970) The sex ratio of nestling great tits. Bird Study, 17, 282286.
  • Ellegren, H. & Sheldon, B.C. (1997) New tools for sex identification and the study of sex allocation in birds. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 12, 255259.
  • Fargallo, J.A., Laaksonen, T., Poyri, V. & Korpimaki, E. (2002) Inter-sexual differences in the immune response of Eurasian kestrel nestlings under food shortage. Ecology Letters, 5, 95101.
  • Fisher, R.A. (1930) The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Folstad, I. & Karter, A.J. (1992) Parasites, bright males, and the immunocompetence handicap. American Naturalist, 139, 603622.
  • Gaillard, R.C. & Spinedi, E. (1998) Sex– and stress–steroids interactions and the immune system: evidence for a neuroendocrine-immunological sexual dimorphism. Domestic Animal Endocrinology, 15, 345352.
  • Gasparini, J., McCoy, K.D., Haussy, C., Tveraa, T. & Boulinier, T. (2001) Induced maternal response to the Lyme disease spirochaete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in a colonial seabird, the kittiwake Rissa tridactyla. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 268, 647650.
  • Gasparini, J., McCoy, K.D., Tveraa, T. & Boulinier, T. (2002) Related concentrations of specific immunoglobulins against the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in eggs, young and adults of the kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla). Ecology Letters, 5, 519524.
  • Goto, N., Kodama, H., Okada, K. & Fujimoto, Y. (1978) Suppression of phytohemagglutinin skin response in thymectomised chickens. Poultry Science, 57, 246250.
  • Griffiths, R., Double, M.C., Orr, K. & Dawson, R.J.G. (1998) A DNA test to sex most birds. Molecular Ecology, 7, 10711075.
  • Grossman, C. (1989) Possible underlying mechanisms of sexual dimorphism in the immune-response, fact and hypothesis. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 34, 241251.
  • Lessells, C.M. & Boag, P.T. (1987) Unrepeatable repeatabilities: a common mistake. Auk, 104, 116121.
  • Littell, R.C., Millinken, G.A., Stroup, W.W. & Wolfinger, R.D. (1996) SAS Systems for Mixed Models. SAS Institute, Cary, NC.
  • Lochmiller, R.L. & Deerenberg, C. (2000) Trade-offs in evolutionary immunology: just what is the cost of immunity? Oikos, 88, 8798.
  • Lochmiller, R.L., Vestey, M.R. & Boren, J.C. (1993) Relationship between protein nutritional status and immunocompetence in northern bobwhite chicks. Auk, 110, 503510.
  • McCorkle, F., Olah, I. & Glick, B. (1980) Morphology of the phytohemagglutinin-induced cell response in the chickens wattle. Poultry Science, 59, 616623.
  • McCurdy, D.G., Shutler, D., Mullie, A. & Forbes, M.R. (1998) Sex-biased parasitism of avian hosts: relations to blood parasite taxon and mating system. Oikos, 82, 303312.
  • Møller, A.P., Sorci, G. & Erritzøe, J. (1998) Sexual dimorphism in immune defense. American Naturalist, 152, 605619.
  • Moreno, J., Potti, J., Yorio, P. & Borboroglu, P.G. (2001) Sex differences in cell-mediated immunity in the Magellanic penguin Spheniscus magellanicus. Annales Zoologici Fennici, 38, 111116.
  • Oddie, K.R. (2000) Size matters: competition between male and female great tit offspring. Journal of Animal Ecology, 69, 903912.
  • Olsen, N.J. & Kovacs, W.J. (1996) Gonadal steroids and immunity. Endocrine Review, 17, 369384.
  • Olson, V.A. & Owens, I.P.F. (1998) Costly sexual signals: are carotenoids rare, risky or required? Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 13, 510514.
  • Oppliger, A., Richner, H. & Christe, P. (1994) Effect of an ectoparasite on lay date, nest-site choice, desertation, and hatching success in the great tits (Parus major). Behavioral Ecology, 5, 130134.
  • Petrie, M., Schwabl, H., Brande-Lavridsen, N. & Burke, T. (2001) Sex differences in avian yolk hormone levels. Nature, 412, 498.
  • Potti, J. (1999) Environmental factors and sexual differences in mass and condition of nestling pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca. Ecoscience, 6, 1924.
  • Potti, J., Davila, J.A., Tella, J.L., Frias, O. & Villar, S. (2002) Gender and viability selection on morphology in fledgling pied flycatchers. Molecular Ecology, 11, 13171326.
  • Potti, J. & Merino, S. (1996) Parasites and the ontogeny of sexual size dimorphism in a passerine bird. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 263, 912.
  • Poulin, R. (1996) Sexual inequalities in helminth infections: a cost of being a male? American Naturalist, 147, 287295.
  • Reimchen, T.E. (2001) Ecological causes of sex-biased parasitism in threespine stickleback. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 73, 5163.
  • Richner, H., Oppliger, A. & Christie, P. (1993) Effect of an ectoparasite on reproduction in great tits. Journal of Animal Ecology, 62, 703710.
  • Saino, N., Ambrosini, R., Martinelli, R., Calza, S., Møller, A.P. & Pilastro, A. (2002) Offspring sexual dimorphism and sex-allocation in relation to parental age and paternal ornamentation in the barn swallow. Molecular Ecology, 11, 15331544.
  • Sall, J. & Lehmann, A. (1996) JMP Start Statistics. Duxbury Press, NY.
  • Schalk, G. & Forbes, M.R. (1997) Male biases in parasitism of mammals: effects of study type, host age, and parasite taxon. Oikos, 78, 6774.
  • Von Schantz, T., Bensch, S., Grahn, M., Hasselquist, D. & Wittzell, H. (1999) Good genes, oxidative stress and condition-dependent sexual signals. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 266, 112.
  • Schwabl, H. (1996) Maternal testosterone in the avian egg enhances postnatal growth. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A, 114, 271276.
  • Silverin, B. & Sharp, P. (1996) The development of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis in juvenile great tits. General and Comparative Endocrinology, 103, 150166.
  • Slagsvold, T. & Lifjeld, J.T. (1985) Variation in plumage colour of the Great tit Parus major: relation to habitat, season and food. Journal of Zoology, 206, 321328.
  • Smith, H.G., Kallander, H. & Nilsson, J.A. (1989) The trade-off between offspring number and quality in the great tit Parus major. Journal of Animal Ecology, 58, 383401.
  • Smits, J.E., Bortolotti, G.R. & Tella, J.L. (1999) Simplifying the phytohaemagglutinin skin-testing technique in studies of avian immunocompetence. Functional Ecology, 13, 567572.
  • Svensson, L. (1992) Identification Guide to European Passerines. Heraclio Fournier SA, Vitoria.
  • Tella, J.L., Bortolotti, G.R., Dawson, R.D. & Forero, M.G. (2000) The T-cell-mediated immune response and return rate of fledgling American kestrels are positively correlated with parental clutch size. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 267, 891895.
  • Tripet, F. & Richner, H. (1997) The coevolutionary potential of a ‘generalist’ parasite, the hen flea Ceratophyllus gallinae. Parasitology, 115, 419427.
  • Tripet, F. & Richner, H. (1999) Dynamics of hen flea Ceratophyllus gallinae subpopulations in blue tit nests. Journal of Insect Behavior, 12, 159174.
  • Trivers, R.L. & Willard, D.E. (1973) Natural selection of parental ability to vary sex-ratio of offspring. Science, 179, 9092.
  • Tschirren, B., Fitze, P.S. & Richner, H. (2003) Proximate mechanisms of variation in the carotenoid-based plumage coloration of nestling great tits (Parus major L.). Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 16, 91100.
  • Zuk, M. & McKean, K.A. (1996) Sex differences in parasite infections: Patterns and processes. International Journal of Parasitology, 26, 10091024.