1. A deterrent was used in conjunction with engineering and management techniques to discourage nomadic waterfowl from landing and remaining on toxic waterbodies.
2. Four behavioural traits of nomadic waterfowl were exploited in the development of the deterrent: nocturnal movements, attraction to reflective surfaces, fear of diurnal predators, and naivety to local conditions and deterrents.
3. A rotating, intermittent beacon directed at a shallow angle across the water surface effectively discouraged most waterfowl. This beacon was floating and solar-powered and built to be acid resistant.
4. A series of deterrents, with gas-powered sonic guns and provision of clean alternative waterbodies nearby, significantly lessened the likelihood of waterfowl injury or mortality on toxic waterbodies.