SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Akaike, H. (1973) Information theory and an extension of the maximum likelihood principle. International Symposium on Information Theory, 2nd edn (eds B.N.Petran & F.Csaki), pp. 267281. Akademiaiiadi, Budapest, Hungary.
  • Allison, P.D. (1995) Survival Analysis Using the SAS System: A Practical Guide. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC.
  • Bank, M.S. & Franklin, W.L. (1998) Puma (Puma concolor patagonia) feeding observations and attacks on guanacos (Lama guanicoe). Mammalia, 62, 599605.
  • Behl, M.J. (1992) Effects of juvenile survival and parental investment on primary sex ratios in guanacos. Unpublished MS Thesis. Iowa State University, Ames, IA.
  • Berger, J. (1978) Maternal defensive behaviour in bighorn sheep. Journal of Mammalogy, 59, 620621.
  • Berger, J. (1986) Wild Horses of the Great Basin: Social Competition and Population Size. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.
  • Caughley, G. (1977) Analysis of Vertebrate Populations. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY.
  • Clutton-Brock, T.H. (1991) The Evolution of Parental Care. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
  • Clutton-Brock, T.H., Albon, S.D. & Guinness, F.E. (1985) Parental investment and sex differences in juvenile mortality in birds and mammals. Nature, 313, 131133.
  • Cook, R.S., White, M., Trainer, D.O. & Glazener, W.C. (1971) Mortality of young white-tailed deer fawns in South Texas. Journal of Wildlife Management, 35, 4756.
  • Coté, S.D., Peracino, A. & Simard, G. (1997) Wolf, Canis lupus, predation and maternal defensive behavior in mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus. Canadian Field-Naturalist, 111, 389392.
  • Cunazza, P.C. (1992a) Situación del guanaco en Chile: Situación actual y perspectivas futuras de manejo. Estrategias para el manejo y aprovechamiento racional del guanaco (Lama guanicoe) (eds B.Marchetti, J.Oltremari Arregui & H.Peters), p. 133 (Anexo No. 11). Oficina Regional de la FAO Para America Latina Y El Caribe, Santiago, Chile.
  • Cunazza, P.C. (1992b) The guanaco. South American Camelids: An Action Plan for Their Conservation (ed. H.Torres), pp. 1618. IUCN South American Camelid Specialist Group, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Gland, Switzerland.
  • Dickinson, T.G., Wampler, G.E., Garner, G.W. & Simpson, C.D. (1980) Mortality of desert mule deer fawns in Pecos county, Texas. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Western Association Fish and Wildlife Agencies, 60, 581592.
  • Franklin, W.L. (1983) Contrasting socioecologies of South America's wild camelids: the vicuña and the guanaco. Advances in the Study of Mammalian Behavior (eds J.K.Eisenberg & D.G.Kleiman), pp. 573629. Special Publication no. 7. American Society of Mammalogists.
  • Franklin, W.L. & Fritz, M.A. (1991) Sustained harvesting of the Patagonia guanaco: is it possible or too late? Neotropical Wildlife Use and Conservation (eds K.Redford & J.Robinson), pp. 317336. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.
  • Franklin, W.L. & Johnson, W.E. (1994) Hand capture of newborn open-habitat ungulates: the South American guanaco. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 22, 253259.
  • Franklin, W.L., Johnson, W.E., Sarno, R.J. & Iriarte, J.A. (1999) Ecology of the Patagonia puma, Felis concolor patagonica, in southern Chile. Biological Conservation, 90, 2240.
  • Fritz, M.A. & Franklin, W.L. (1994) First estimates of guanaco male group harvestability in the Patagonia of South America. Vida Silvestre Neotropical, 3, 8490.
  • Gaillard, J.M., Boutin, J.M., Delorme, D., Van Laere, G., Duncan, P. & Lebreton, J.D. (1997) Early survival in roe deer: causes and consequences of cohort variation in two contrasted populations. Oecologia, 112, 502513.
  • Gaillard, J.M., Delorme, D., Boutin, J.M., Van Laere, G., Boisaubert, B. & Pradel, R. (1993) Roe deer survival patterns: a comparative analysis of contrasting populations. Journal of Animal Ecology, 62, 778791.
  • Gaillard, J.M., Festa-Bianchet, M. & Yoccoz, N.G. (1998) Population dynamics of large herbivores: variable recruitment with constant adult survival. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 13, 5863.
  • Gaillard, J.M., Pontier, D., Allainé, D., Lebreton, J.D., Trouvilliez, J. & Clobert, J. (1989) An analysis of demographic tactics in birds and mammals. Oikos, 56, 5976.
  • Garner, G.W. & Morrison, J.A. (1980) Observations of interspecific behavior between predators and white-tailed deer in southwestern Oklahoma. Journal of Mammalogy, 61, 126130.
  • Gustafson, L.L., Franklin, W.L., Sarno, R.J., Hunter, R.L., Young, K.M., Johnson, W.E. & Behl, M.J. (1998) Predicting early mortality of newborn guanacos by birth mass and hematological parameters: a provisional model. Journal of Wildlife Management, 62, 2435.
  • Hanks, J. (1981) Characterization of population condition. Dynamics of Large Mammal Populations (eds C.W.Fowler & T.D.Smith), pp. 4773. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.
  • Hines, J.E. & Sauer, J.R. (1989) Program contrast – A General Program for the Analysis of Several Survival or Recovery Rate Estimates. Technical Report 24. US Fish & Wildlife Service, Washington DC.
  • Huegel, C.N., Dahlgren, R.B. & Gladfelter, H.L. (1985) Mortality of white-tailed deer fawns in south-central Iowa. Journal of Wildlife Management, 49, 377380.
  • International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (1981) IUCN WWF position statement on vicuña. IUCN Bulletin, 12, 1213.
  • Iriarte, J.A. & Jaksic, F.M. (1986) The fur trade in Chile: an overview of seventy-five years of export data (1910–1984). Biological Conservation, 38, 243253.
  • Iriarte, J.A., Johnson, W.E. & Franklin, W.L. (1991) Feeding ecology of the Patagonia puma in southernmost Chile. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural, 64, 145156.
  • Jedrzejewski, W., Jedrzejewska, B., Okarma, H. & Ruprecht, A.L. (1992) Wolf predation and snow cover as mortality factors in the ungulate community of the Bialowieza National Park, Poland. Oecologia, 90, 2736.
  • Johnson, W.E. & Franklin, W.L. (1991) Feeding and spatial ecology of Felis geoffroyi in southern Patagonia. Journal of Mammalogy, 72, 815820.
  • Johnson, W.E. & Franklin, W.L. (1994) The role of body size in the diets of sympatric grey and culpeo foxes. Journal of Mammalogy, 75, 163174.
  • Joubert, E. (1983) Harvesting game at night in South West Africa. Game Harvest Management (eds S.L.Beasom & S.F.Robertson), pp. 289297. Caesar Kleberg Wildlife Research Institute, Texas A & I University, Kingsville, TX.
  • Keister, G.P., Trainer, C.E. & Willis, M.J. (1988) A self-adjusting collar for young ungulates. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 16, 321323.
  • Kunkel, K.E. & Mech, D.L. (1994) Wolf and bear predation on white-tailed deer fawns in northeastern Minnesota. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 72, 15571565.
  • Linnell, J.D.C., Aanes, R. & Andersen, R. (1995) Who killed Bambi? The role of predation in the neonatal mortality of temperate ungulates. Wildlife Biology, 1, 209223.
  • McNamara, J.M. & Houston, A.I. (1987) Starvation and predation as factors limiting population size. Ecology, 68, 15151519.
  • Ortega, I.M. & Franklin, W.L. (1995) Social organization, distribution and movements of a migratory guanaco population in the Chilean Patagonia. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural, 68, 489500.
  • Pisano, E. (1974) Estudio ecologico de la region continental sur del area andino-patagonico. II. Contribucion a la fitogeografia de la zona del Parque Nacional ‘Torres del Paine’. Anales Instituto de la Patagonia, 5, 59104.
  • Pollock, K.H., Winterstein, S.R., Bunck, C.M. & Curtis, P.D. (1989b) Survival analysis in telemetry studies: the staggered entry design. Journal of Wildlife Management, 53, 715.
  • Pollock, K.H., Winterstein, S.R. & Conroy, M.J. (1989a) Estimation and analysis of survival distributions for radio-tagged animals. Biometrics, 45, 99109.
  • Porath, W.R. (1980) Fawn mortality estimates in farmland deer range. White-Tailed Deer Population Management in North Central States (eds R.L.Hine & S.Nehls), pp. 5563. North Central Section, The Wildlife Society, Urbana, IL.
  • Ralls, K., Brownwell, R.L. & Ballou, J. (1980) Differential mortality by sex and age in mammals, with specific reference to the sperm whale. Report of the International Whaling Commission, 2 (special issue), 223243.
  • Richardson, L.W., Jacobson, H.A., Muncy, R.J. & Perkins, C.J. (1983) Acoustics of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Journal of Mammalogy, 64, 245252.
  • Robinson, J.G. & Redford, K.H. (1991) Neotropical Wildlife Use and Conservation. Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.
  • Saltz, D., White, G.C. & Bartmann, R.M. (1992) Urinary cortisol, urea nitrogen excretion, and winter survival in mule deer fawns. Journal of Wildlife Management, 56, 640644.
  • Sarno, R.J. & Franklin, W.L. (1999) Maternal expenditure in the polygynous and monomorphic guanaco: suckling behavior, reproductive effort, yearly variation, and influence on juvenile survival. Behavioral Ecology, 10, 4147.
  • SAS Institute Inc. (1989) SAS/STAT User's Guide, Release 6.03 edn. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC.
  • Sauer, J.R. & Boyce, M.S. (1983) Density dependence and survival of elk in northwestern Wyoming. Journal of Wildlife Management, 47, 3137.
  • Sauer, J.R. & Williams, B.K. (1989) Generalized procedures for testing hypotheses about survival or recovery rates. Journal of Wildlife Management, 53, 137142.
  • Savidge, I.R. (1974) Maternal aggressiveness and litter survival in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus bairdi). American Midland Naturalist, 91, 449450.
  • Shank, C.C. (1977) Cooperative defense by bighorn sheep. Journal of Mammalogy, 58, 243244.
  • Singer, F.J., Harting, A., Symonds, K.K. & Coughenour, M.B. (1997) Density dependence, compensation, and environmental effects on elk calf mortality in Yellowstone National Park. Journal of Wildlife Management, 61, 1225.
  • Smith, B.L. & Anderson. S.H. (1998) Juvenile survival and population regulation of the Jackson elk herd. Journal of Wildlife Management, 62, 10361045.
  • Stearns, S.C. (1992) The Evolution of Life-Histories. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
  • White, G.C. & Garrott, R.A. (1990) Analysis of Wildlife Radio-Tracking Data. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
  • White, G.C., Garrott, R.A., Bartmann, R.M., Carpenter, L.H. & Alldredge, A.W. (1987) Survival of mule deer in northwest Colorado. Journal of Wildlife Management, 51, 852859.
  • Whitten, K.R., Garner, G.W., Mauer, F.J. & Harris, R.B. (1992) Productivity and early calf survival in the Porcupine Caribou Herd. Journal of Wildlife Management, 56, 210212.
  • Wilson, P.E. & Franklin, W.L. (1985) Male group dynamics and inter-male aggression of guanacos in Southern Chile. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 69, 305328.