SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Allee, W.C. (1926) Distribution of animals in a tropical rain-forest with relation to environmental factors. Ecology, 7, 445468.
  • Andersen, A.N. (1990) The use of ant communities to evaluate change in Australian terrestrial ecosystems: a review and a recipe. Proceedings of the Ecological Society of Australia, 16, 347357.
  • Ashton, P.M.S., Gunatilleke, C.V.S., Gunatilleke, I.A.U.N. (1995) Seedling survival and growth of four Shorea species in a Sri Lankan rainforest. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 11, 263279.
  • Aubréville, A. (1938) La forêt coloniale; les forêts de l’Afrique occidentale française. Annales Academie Sciences Coloniale, 9, 1245.
  • Austin, M.P. (1985) Continuum concept, ordination methods and niche theory. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 16, 3961.
  • Baker, H.G. (1970) Evolution in the tropics. Biotropica, 2, 101111.
  • Basset, Y., Novotny, V., Miller, S.E., Springate, N.D. (1998) Assessing the impact of forest disturbance on tropical invertebrates: some comments. Journal of Applied Ecology, 35, 461466.
  • Bertault, J.-G. & Sist, P. (1997) An experimental comparison of different harvesting intensities with reduced-impact and conventional logging in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Forest Ecology and Management, 94, 209218.
  • Bowman, D.M.J.S., Woinarski, J.C.Z., Sands, D.P.A., Wells, A., McShane, V.J. (1990) Slash-and-burn agriculture in the wet coastal lowlands of Papua New Guinea: responses of birds, butterflies and reptiles. Journal of Biogeography, 17, 227239.
  • Brown, K.S. Jr (1991) Conservation of neotropical environments: insects as indicators. The Conservation of Insects and Their Habitats (eds N.M.Collins & J.A.Thomas), pp. 350401. Academic Press, London, UK.
  • Brown, K.S. Jr (1997) Diversity, disturbance, and sustainable use of Neotropical forests: insects as indicators for conservation monitoring. Journal of Insect Conservation, 1, 2542.
  • Brown, N. (1990) Dipterocarp regeneration in tropical rainforest gaps of different sizes. PhD Thesis. University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
  • Brown, N.D. & Jennings, S. (1998) Gap-size niche differentiation by tropical rainforest trees: a testable hypothesis or a broken-down bandwagon? Dynamics of Tropical Communities (eds D.M.Newbery, H.T.Prins & N.D.Brown), pp. 7994. Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK.
  • Busschbacher, R., Uhl, C., Serrao, E.A.S. (1988) Abandoned pastures in eastern Amazonia. II. Nutrient stocks in the soil and vegetation. Journal of Ecology, 76, 682699.
  • Buzas, M. & Hayek, L.-A.C. (1996) Biodiversity resolution: an integrated approach. Biodiversity Letters, 3, 4043.
  • Cambefort, Y. (1991) Biogeography and evolution. Dung Beetle Ecology (eds I.Hanski & Y.Cambefort), pp. 5167. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
  • Cannon, C.H., Peart, D.R., Leighton, M., Kartawinata, K. (1994) The structure of lowland rain-forest after selective logging in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Forest Ecology and Management, 67, 4968.
  • Chai, D.N.P. (1997) Sabah: sustainable forest management (SFM) – forestry policy and action towards the creation of wealth for the future. Trends and Challenges in Tropical Ecosystems: Forest Conversion (eds M.Trockenbrodt & M.Mohamed), pp. 714. Proceedings of the 2nd Seminar on Tropical Ecosystem Research in Sabah. Forestry Department, Sabah, Malaysia.
  • Cheverton, M.R. & Thomas, C.D. (1985) Land use and conservation in Panama: a study of butterfly density and species diversity. Proceedings of the 3rd European Congress on Lepidoptera, Cambridge, 1982, pp. 3046. Societas Europaea Lepidopterologica, Denmark.
  • Chey, V.K., Holloway, J.D., Speight, M.R. (1997) Diversity of moths in forest plantations and natural forests in Sabah. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 87, 371385.
  • Collins, N.M., Sayer, J.A., Whitmore, T.C. (1991) The Conservation Atlas of Tropical Forests: Asia and the Pacific. Macmillan, London, UK.
  • Colwell, R.K. & Coddington, J.A. (1994) Estimating terrestrial biodiversity by extrapolation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society Series B, 345, 101118.
  • Connell, J.H. (1978) Diversity of tropical rain forests and coral reefs. Science, 199, 13021310.
  • Crome, F.H.J. (1997) Researching tropical forest fragmentation: shall we keep on doing what we’re doing? Tropical Forest Remnants: Ecology, Management, and Conservation of Fragmented Communities (eds W.F.Laurance & R.O.Bierregaard), pp. 485501. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.
  • Daniel, W.W. (1990) Applied Nonparametric Statistics. PWS-KENT Publishing Company, Boston, MA.
  • Davis, A.J. (1993) The ecology and behaviour of rainforest dung beetles in northern Borneo. PhD Thesis. University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.
  • Davis, A.J. (2000a) Does reduced-impact logging help preserve biodiversity in tropical rainforests? A case study from Borneo using dung beetles as indicators. Environmental Entomology, 29, 467475.
  • Davis, A.J. (2000b) Species richness of dung-feeding beetles (Coleoptera: Aphodiidae, Scarabaeidae, Hybosoridae) in tropical rainforest at Danum Valley, Sabah, Malaysia. Coleopterists’ Bulletin, 54, 221231.
  • Davis, A.J. & Sutton, S.L. (1998) The effects of rainforest canopy loss on arboreal dung beetles in Borneo: implications for the measurement of biodiversity in derived tropical ecosystems. Diversity and Distributions, 4, 167173.
  • Davis, A.J., Huijbregts, J., Kirk-Spriggs, A.H., Krikken, J., Sutton, S.L. (1997) The ecology and behaviour of arboreal dung beetles in Borneo. Canopy Arthropods (eds N.E.Stork, J.Adis & R.Didham), pp. 417432. Chapman & Hall, London, UK.
  • Davis, A.J., Huijbregts, J., Krikken, J. (2000) The role of local and regional processes in shaping dung beetle communities in tropical forest plantations in Borneo. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 9, 281292.
  • Didham, R.K. (1997) The influence of edge effects and forest fragmentation on leaf litter invertebrates in Central Amazonia. Tropical Forest Remnants: Ecology, Management, and Conservation of Fragmented Communities (eds W.F.Laurance & R.O.Bierregaard), pp. 5570. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.
  • Didham, R., Ghazoul, J., Stork, N., Davis, A.J. (1996) Invertebrates in fragmented forests – a functional approach. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 11, 255260.
  • Doube, B.M. (1983) The habitat preference of some bovine dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Hluhluwe Game Reserve, South Africa. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 73, 357371.
  • Dufrêne, M. & Legendre, P. (1997) Species assemblages and indicator species: the need for a flexible asymmetrical approach. Ecological Monographs, 67, 345366.
  • FAO (1987) Development of Forest Sector Planning, Malaysia: Inventory. FO: DP/MAL/85/004. Technical Report No. 1. FAO, Rome, Italy.
  • FAO (1993) Forest Resources Assessment 1990: Tropical Countries. FAO Forestry Paper 112. FAO, Rome, Italy.
  • FAO (1995) Forest Resources Assessment 1990: Global Synthesis. FAO Forestry Paper 124. FAO, Rome, Italy.
  • Gentry, A.H. (1988) Changes in plant community diversity and floristic composition on environmental and geographical gradients. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 75, 134.
  • Grubb, P.J. (1977) The maintenance of species-richness in plant communities: the importance of the regeneration niche. Biological Review, 52, 107145.
  • Halffter, G. & Favila, M.E. (1993) The Scarabaeinae (Insecta: Coleoptera): an animal group for analysing, inventorying and monitoring biodiversity in tropical rainforest and modified landscapes. Biology International, 27, 1521.
  • Halffter, G., Favila, M.E., Halffter, V. (1992) A comparative study of the structure of the scarab guild in Mexican tropical rain forest and derived ecosystems. Folia Entomologica Mexicana, 84, 131156.
  • Hammond, P.M. (1990) Insect abundance and diversity in the Dumoga-Bone National Park, N. Sulawesi, with special reference to the beetle fauna of lowland rain forest in the Toraut region. Insects and the Rain Forests of South-East Asia (Wallacea) (eds W.J.Knight & J.D.Holloway), pp. 197254. The Royal Entomological Society, London, UK.
  • Hanski, I. (1983) Distributional ecology and abundance of dung and carrion-feeding beetles (Scarabaeidae) in tropical rain forests in Sarawak, Borneo. Acta Zoologica Fennica, 167, 145.
  • Hanski, I. (1989) Metapopulation dynamics: does it help to have more of the same? Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 4, 113114.
  • Hanski, I. & Cambefort, Y. (1991a) Competition in dung beetles. Dung Beetle Ecology (eds I.Hanski & Y.Cambefort), pp. 305329. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
  • Hanski, I. & Cambefort, Y. (1991b) Species richness. Dung Beetle Ecology (eds I.Hanski & Y.Cambefort), pp. 350365. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
  • Hanski, I. & Krikken, J. (1991) Dung beetles in tropical forests in South-East Asia. Dung Beetle Ecology (eds I.Hanski & Y.Cambefort), pp. 179197. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
  • Hill, C.J. (1995) Linear strips of rain forest vegetation as potential dispersal corridors for rain forest insects. Conservation Biology, 9, 15591566.
  • Hill, C.J. (1996) Habitat specificity and food preferences of an assemblage of tropical Australian dung beetles. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 12, 449460.
  • Hill, J.K. & Hamer, K.C. (1998) Using species abundance models as indicators of habitat disturbance in tropical forests. Journal of Applied Ecology, 35, 458460.
  • Hill, J.K., Hamer, K.C., Lace, L.A., Banham, W.M.T. (1995) Effects of selective logging on tropical forest butterflies on Buru, Indonesia. Journal of Applied Ecology, 32, 754760.
  • Holloway, J.D. (1977) The Lepidoptera of Norfolk Island, their Biogeography and Ecology. Series Entomologica, 13. W. Junk, The Hague, the Netherlands.
  • Holloway, J.D. (1979) A Survey of the Lepidoptera, Biogeography and Ecology of New Caledonia. Series Entomologica, 15. W. Junk, The Hague, the Netherlands.
  • Holloway, J.D. (1987) Macrolepidoptera diversity in the Indo-Australian tropics: geographic, biotopic and taxonomic variations. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 30, 325341.
  • Holloway, J.D. (1996) The Lepidoptera of Norfolk Island, actual and potential, their origins and dynamics. The Origin and Evolution of Pacific Island Biotas, New Guinea to Eastern Polynesia: Patterns and Processes (eds J.A.Keast & S.E.Miller), pp. 123151. SPB Academic Publishing, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
  • Holloway, J.D. (1998) The impact of traditional and modern cultivation practices, including forestry, on Lepidoptera diversity in Malaysia and Indonesia. Dynamics of Tropical Communities (eds D.M.Newbery, H.T.Prins & N.D.Brown), pp. 567597. Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK.
  • Holloway, J.D. & Stork, N.E. (1991) The dimensions of biodiversity: the use of invertebrates as indicators of human impact. The Biodiversity of Microorganisms and Invertebrates: Its Role in Sustainable Agriculture (ed. D.L.Hawksworth), pp. 3762. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
  • Holloway, J.D., Kirk-Spriggs, A.H., Chey, V.K. (1992) The response of some rain forest insect groups to logging and conversion to plantation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B, 335, 425436.
  • Holmberg, J., Bass, S., Timberlake, L. (1991) Defending the Future: A Guide to Sustainable Development. IIED/Earthscan, London, UK.
  • Howden, H.F. & Nealis, V.G. (1975) Effects of clearing in a tropical rain forest on the composition of the coprophagous scarab beetle fauna (Coleoptera). Biotropica, 7, 7783.
  • Huston, M.A. (1994) Biological Diversity. The Coexistence of Species on Changing Landscapes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Intachat, J., Holloway, J.D., Speight, M.R. (1997) The effects of different forest management practices on geometroid moth populations and their diversity in Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 9, 411430.
  • Intachat, J., Holloway, J.D., Speight, M.R. (1999) The impact of logging on geometroid moth populations and their diversity in lowland forests of Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 11, 6178.
  • Jacobs, M. (1988) The Tropical Rainforest. A First Encounter. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany.
  • Janzen, D.H. (1983) Insects at carrion and dung. Costa Rican Natural History (ed. D.H.Janzen), pp. 640642. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.
  • Janzen, D.H. (1987) Insect diversity of a Costa Rican dry forest: why keep it, and how? Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 30, 343356.
  • Janzen, D.H. & Schoener, T.W. (1968) Differences in insect abundance and diversity between wetter and drier sites during a tropical dry season. Ecology, 49, 96110.
  • Jardine, N. & Sibson, R. (1968) The construction of hierarchic and non-hierarchic classifications. Computer Journal, 11, 177184.
  • Kapos, V. (1989) Effects of isolation on the water status of forest patches in the Brazilian Amazon. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 5, 173185.
  • Kapos, V., Ganade, G., Matsui, E., Victoria, R.L. (1993) 13C as an indicator of edge effects in tropical rainforest reserves. Journal of Ecology, 81, 425432.
  • Kato, M., Inoue, T., Hamid, A.A., Nagamitso, T., Merdek, M.B., Nona, A.R., Hino, T., Yamane, S., Yumoto, T. (1995) Seasonality and vertical structure of light-attracted insect communities in a dipterocarp forest in Sarawak. Researches on Population Ecology, 37, 5979.
  • Klein, B.C. (1989) Effects of forest fragmentation on dung and carrion beetle communities in central Amazonia. Ecology, 70, 17151725.
  • Kremen, C. (1992) Assessing the indicator properties of species assemblages for natural areas monitoring. Ecological Applications, 2, 203217.
  • Kremen, C., Colwell, R.K., Erwin, T.L., Murphy, D.D., Noss, R.F., Sanjayan, M.A. (1993) Terrestrial arthropods assemblages: their use in conservation planning. Conservation Biology, 7, 796808.
  • Landres, P.B., Verner, J., Thomas, J.W. (1988) Ecological uses of vertebrate indicator species: a critique. Conservation Biology, 2, 316328.
  • Laurance, W.F. (1991) Edge effects in tropical forest fragments: application of a model for the design of nature reserves. Biological Conservation, 57, 205219.
  • Laurance, W.F. & Bierregaard, R.O. (1997) Tropical Forest Remnants: Ecology, Management, and Conservation of Fragmented Communities. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.
  • Laurance, W.F. & Yensen, E. (1991) Predicting the impacts of edge effects in fragmented habitats. Biological Conservation, 55, 7792.
  • Lawton, J.H., Bignell, D.E., Bolton, B., Bloemers, G.F., Eggleton, P., Hammond, P.M., Hodda, M., Holt, R.D., Larsen, T.B., Mawdsley, N.A., Stork, N.E., Srivastava, D.S., Watt, A.D. (1998) Biodiversity inventories, indicator taxa and effects of habitat modification in tropical forest. Nature, 391, 7276.
  • Leigh, E.G. Jr (1983) Introduction: why are there so many kinds of tropical trees? The Ecology of a Tropical Forest: Seasonal Rhythms and Long-Term Changes (eds E.G.LeighJr, A.S.Rands & D.M.Windsor), pp. 6366. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
  • Leopold, A. (1933) Game Management. Charles Scribner and Sons, New York, NY.
  • Lovejoy, T.E., Bierregaard, R.O. Jr, Rylands, A.B., Malcolm, J.R., Quintela, C.E., Harper, L.H., Brown, K.S. Jr, Powell, A.H., Powell, G.V.N., Schubart, H.O.R., Hays, M.B. (1986) Edge and other effects of isolation on Amazon forest fragments. Conservation Biology: The Science of Scarcity and Diversity (ed. M.E.Soulé), pp. 257285. Sinauer Associates Inc., Sunderland, MA.
  • MacArthur, R.H. (1965) Patterns of species diversity. Biological Reviews (Cambridge), 40, 510533.
  • MacArthur, R.H. (1972) Geographical Ecology: Patterns in the Distribution of Species. Harper & Row, New York, NY.
  • McGeoch, M.A. (1998) The selection, testing and application of terrestrial insects as bioindicators. Biological Reviews (Cambridge), 73, 181201.
  • McGeoch, M.A. & Chown, S.L. (1998) Scaling up the value of bioindicators. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 13, 4647.
  • Magurran, A.E. (1988) Ecological Diversity and its Measurement. Chapman & Hall, London, UK.
  • Marsh, C.W. (1995) Danum Valley Conservation Area Management Plan. Yayasan Sabah/Innoprise Corporation Sdn Bhd, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
  • Marsh, C.W. & Greer, A.G. (1992) Forest land-use in Sabah, Malaysia: an introduction to Danum Valley. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B, 335, 331339.
  • Marshall, A.G. (1992) The Royal Society’s South-east Asian Rain Forest Research Programme: an introduction. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B, 335, 327330.
  • Martínéz-Ramos, M., Alverez-Buylla, E., Sarukhán, J., Pínero, D. (1988) Tree fall age determination and dynamics in a tropical forest. Journal of Ecology, 76, 700716.
  • May, R.M. (1975) Patterns of species abundance and diversity. Ecology and Evolution of Communities (eds M.L.Cody & J.M.Diamond), pp. 81120. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.
  • Murcia, C. (1995) Edge effects in fragmented forests: implications for conservation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 10, 5862.
  • Nealis, V.G. (1977) Habitat associations and community analysis of south Texas dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 55, 138147.
  • New, T.R. (1998) Invertebrate Surveys for Conservation. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
  • Newbery, D.McC., Campbell, E.J.F., Lee, Y.F., Ridsdale, C.E., Still, M.J. (1992) Primary lowland dipterocarp forest at Danum Valley, Sabah, Malaysia: structure, relative abundance and family composition. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B, 335, 341356.
  • Nummelin, M. (1996) The community structure of arthropods in virgin and managed sites in the Kibale Forest, Western Uganda. Tropical Ecology, 37, 203213.
  • Nummelin, M. (1998) Log-normal distribution of species abundances is not a universal indicator of rain forest disturbance. Journal of Applied Ecology, 35, 454457.
  • Nummelin, M. & Hanski, I. (1989) Dung beetles of the Kibale Forest, Uganda: comparison between virgin and managed forests. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 5, 349352.
  • Pearson, D.L. (1994) Selecting indicator taxa for the quantitative assessment of biodiversity. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B, 345, 7579.
  • Pinard, M.A. & Putz, F.E. (1996) Retaining forest biomass by reducing logging damage. Biotropica, 28, 278295.
  • Reid, W.V. (1992) How many species will there be? Tropical Deforestation and Species Extinction (eds T.C.Whitmore & J.A.Sayer), pp. 5574. Chapman & Hall, London, UK.
  • Reid, M.V. & Miller, K.R. (1989) Keeping Options Alive: The Scientific Basis for Conserving Biodiversity. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC.
  • Richards, P.W. (1952) The Tropical Rain Forest, 1st edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Ricklefs, R.E. (1973) Ecology. Nelson, London, UK.
  • Robinson, G.R., Holt, R.D., Gaines, M.S., Hamburg, S.P., Johnson, M.L., Fitch, H.S., Martinko, E.A. (1992) Diverse and contrasting effects of habitat fragmentation. Science, 257, 524526.
  • Roth, R.R. (1976) Spatial heterogeneity and bird species diversity. Ecology, 57, 773782.
  • Sabah Forestry Department (1986) Potentials of the forestry sector in the state economy. Unpublished paper presented at seminar on ‘Strategic Planning for Sabah’, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
  • Samways, M.J. (1994) Insect Conservation Biology. Chapman & Hall, London, UK.
  • Sist, P., Nolan, T., Bertault, J.-G., Dykstra, D. (1998) Harvesting intensity versus sustainability in Indonesia. Forest Ecology and Management, 108, 251260.
  • Sokal, R.R. & Rohlf, F.J. (1995) Biometry: The Principles and Practice of Statistics in Biological Research, 3rd edn. W.H. Freeman & Co., New York, NY.
  • Southwood, T.R.E. (1978) Ecological Methods: With Particular Reference to the Study of Insect Populations, 2nd edn. Chapman & Hall, London, UK.
  • Sparrow, H.R., Sisk, T.D., Ehrlich, P.R., Murphy, D.D. (1994) Techniques and guidelines for monitoring neotropical butterflies. Conservation Biology, 8, 800809.
  • Spitzer, K., Jaroš, J., Havelka, J., Lepš, J. (1997) Effect of small-scale disturbance on butterfly communities of an Indochinese montane rainforest. Biological Conservation, 80, 915.
  • Stork, N.E. (1991) The composition of the arthropod fauna of Bornean lowland forest trees. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 7, 161180.
  • Sutton, S.L. & Collins, N.M. (1991) Insects and tropical forest conservation. The Conservation of Insects and Their Habitats (eds N.M.Collins & J.A.Thomas), pp. 405422. Academic Press, London, UK.
  • Tokeshi, M. (1993) Species abundance patterns and community structure. Advances in Ecological Research, 24, 111186.
  • Turton, S.M. & Freiburger, H.J.(1997) Edge and aspect effects on the microclimate of a small tropical forest remnant on the Atherton Tableland, Northeastern Australia. Tropical Forest Remnants: Ecology, Management, and Conservation of Fragmented Communities (eds W.F.Laurance & R.O.Bierregaard), pp. 4554. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.
  • Ugland, K.I. & Gray, J.S. (1982) Lognormal distributions and the concept of community equilibrium. Oikos, 39, 171178.
  • Wallace, A.R. (1878) Tropical Nature and Other Essays. Macmillan, London, UK.
  • Walsh, R.P.D. (1996) Drought frequency changes in Sabah (Borneo) since the late nineteenth century and possible implications for tropical rainforest dynamics. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 12, 385407.
  • Whitmore, T.C. (1997) Tropical forest disturbance, disappearance, and species loss. Tropical Forest Remnants: Ecology, Management, and Conservation of Fragmented Communities (eds W.F.Laurance & R.O.Bierregaard), pp. 312. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.
  • Whitmore, T.C. & Sayer, J.A. (1992) Deforestation and species extinction in tropical moist forests. Tropical Deforestation and Species Extinction (eds T.C.Whitmore & J.A.Sayer), pp. 114. Chapman & Hall, London, UK.
  • Whittaker, R.H. (1972) Evolution and measurement of species diversity. Taxon, 21, 213251.
  • Whittaker, R.H., Levin, S.A., Root, R.B. (1973) Niche, habitat and ecotope. American Naturalist, 107, 321338.
  • Wolda, H. (1981) Similarity indices, sample size and diversity. Oecologia, 50, 296302.
  • Wolda, H. (1987) Altitude, habitat and tropical insect diversity. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 30, 313323.