SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • ADAS/FMA (1992) Fertilizer Use on Farm Crops in England and Wales 1991. MAFF, London, UK.
  • Aebischer, N.J., Evans, A.D., Grice, P., Vickery, J.A. (2000) The Conservation and Ecology of Lowland Farmland Birds. British Ornithologists’ Union, Tring, UK.
  • Andrzejewska, L. (1976) The effect of mineral fertilization of a meadow on the Auchenorrhyncha (Homoptera) fauna. Polish Ecological Studies, 2, 111127.
  • Andrzejewska, L. (1979) Herbivorous fauna and its role in the economy of grassland systems. I. Herbivores in natural and managed meadows. Polish Ecological Studies, 5, 554.
  • Anonymous (1995) Biodiversity: The UK Steering Group Report. Vol. 2. Action Plans HMSO, London, UK.
  • Baines, D. (1990) The roles of predation, food and agricultural practice in determining the breeding success of the lapwing Vanellus vanellus on upland grasslands. Journal of Animal Ecology, 59, 915929.
  • Baines, M., Hambler, C., Johnson, P.J., Macdonald, D.W., Smith, H. (1998) The effects of arable field margin management on the abundance and species richness of Araneae. Ecography, 21, 7486.
  • Barnard, C.J. & Thompson, D.B.A. (1985) Gulls and Plovers. Croom-Helm, London, UK.
  • Barr, C.J., Britt, C.P., Sparks, T.H. (1995) Hedgerow Management and Wildlife. Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Grange-over-Sands, UK.
  • Beintema, A.J. (1983) Meadow birds as indicators. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 3, 391398.
  • Beintema, A.J. (1988) Conservation of Grassland Bird Communities in The Netherlands. I. International Council for Bird Preservation Technical Publication No. 7. ICBP, Cambridge, UK.
  • Beintema, A.J. (1991) What makes a meadow bird a meadow bird? Wader Study Group Bulletin, 61 (Supplement), 1213.
  • Beintema, A.J. & Muskens, G.J.D.M. (1987) Nesting success of birds breeding in Dutch agricultural grasslands. Journal of Applied Ecology, 24, 743758.
  • Beintema, A.J. & Visser, G.H. (1990) The effect of weather on time budgets and development of chicks of meadow birds. Ardea, 77, 181192.
  • Beintema, A.J., Beintema-Hietbrink, R.J., Muskens, G.J.D.M. (1985) A shift in the timing of breeding in meadow birds. Ardea, 73, 8389.
  • Beintema, A.J., Thissen, J.B., Tensen, D., Visser, G.H. (1990) Feeding ecology of charadrii from chicks in agricultural grassland. Ardea, 79, 3144.
  • Berg, G., Esselink, P., Groeneweg, M., Kiehl, K. (1997) Micropatterns in Festuca rubra dominated salt-marsh vegetation induced by sheep grazing. Plant Ecology, 132, 114.
  • Bignal, E.M. & McCracken, D.I. (1996) Low-intensity farming systems in the conservation of the countryside. Journal of Applied Ecology, 33, 413424.
  • Bignal, E.M., McCracken, D.I., Stillman, R.A., Ovenden, G.N. (1996) Feeding behaviour of nesting choughs in the Scottish Hebrides. Journal of Field Ornithology, 67, 2543.
  • Blake, S. & Foster, G.N. (1998) The influence of grassland management on body size in ground beetles and its bearing on the conservation of wading birds. European Wet Grasslands; Biodiversity, Management and Restoration (eds C.B.Joyce & P.M.Wade), pp. 163169. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK.
  • Blake, S., Foster, G.N., Eyre, M.D., Luff, M.L. (1994) Effects of habitat type and grassland management practices on the body size and distribution of carabid beetles. Pedobiologia, 38, 502512.
  • Blake, S., Foster, G.N., Fisher, G.E.J., Ligertwood, G.E.L. (1996) Effects of management practices on the carabid faunas of newly-established wildflower meadows in southern Scotland. Annales Zoologici Fennici, 33, 139147.
  • Bradbury, R.B., Kyrkos, A., Morris, A.J., Clarke, S.C., Perkins, A.J., Wilson, J.D. (2000) Habitat associations and breeding success of yellowhammers on lowland farmland. Journal of Applied Ecology, 37, 789805.
  • Brickle, N.W., Harper, D.G.C., Aebischer, N.J., Cockayne, S.J. (2000) Effects of agricultural intensification on the breeding success of corn buntings Miliaria calandra. Journal of Applied Ecology, 37, 742756.
  • Brown, V.K., Gibson, C.W.D., Sterling, P.M. (1990) The mechanisms controlling insect diversity in calcareous grassland. Calcareous Grasslands – Ecology and Management (eds S.H.Hillier, D.W.H.Walton & D.A.Wells), pp. 7987. Bluntisham Books, Huntingdon, UK.
  • Bunce, R.G.H., Carey, P., Howard, D.C., Van de Poll, H.M., Roy, D., Hill, M.O., Wilson, P., Smart, S.M., Rothery, P., Metcalfe, J., Duckworth, J. (1998) Ecological Factors Controlling Biodiversity in the British Countryside (ECOFACT). Module 6. Understanding the Causes of Change in Biodiversity in Britain and England and Wales. Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Merlewood, UK.
  • Chamberlain, D.E. & Fuller, R.J. (2000) Local extinctions and changes in species richness of lowland farmland birds in England and Wales in relation to recent changes in agricultural land-use. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 78, 117, 3447.
  • Chamberlain, D.E., Fuller, R.J., Bunce, R.G.H., Duckworth, J.C., Shrubb, M. (2000) Changes in the abundance of farmland birds in relation to the timing of agricultural intensification in England and Wales. Journal of Applied Ecology, 37, 771788.
  • Clements, R.O. & Cook, R. (1996) Pest damage to established grass in the UK. Agricultural Zoology Reviews, 7, 157179.
  • Cramp, S. (1988) Handbook of the Birds of the Middle East and North Africa, Vol. V. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
  • Cramp, S. & Perrins, C.M. (1994) Handbook of the Birds of the Middle East and North Africa. Vol. VIII. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
  • Crofts, A. & Jefferson, R.G. (1999) The Lowland Grassland Management Handbook, 2nd edn. English Nature/The Wildlife Trusts. English Nature, Peterborough, UK.
  • Cromack, H.T.C., Mudd, C.H., Strickland, M.J. (1970) A comparison of types of lime and their frequency of application to grassland. Experimental Husbandry, 19, 4048.
  • Curry, J.P. (1994) Grassland Invertebrates. Chapman & Hall, London, UK.
  • Curry, J.P. & Tuohy, C.F. (1978) Studies on the epigeal microarthropod fauna of grassland swards managed for silage production. Journal of Applied Ecology, 15, 727741.
  • D'Arcy-Burt, S. & Blackshaw, R.P. (1991) Bibionids (Diptera: Bibionidae) in agricultural land: a review of damage, benefits, natural enemies and control. Annals of Applied Biology, 118, 695708.
  • Dargie, T.C. (1993) The Distribution of Lowland Wet Grassland. English Nature Research Report No. 49. English Nature, Peterborough, UK.
  • Duffey, E. (1975) The effects of human trampling on the fauna of grassland litter. Biological Conservation, 7, 255274.
  • Duffey, E., Morris, M.G., Sheail, J., Ward, L.K., Wells, D.A., Wells, T.C.E. (1974) Grassland Ecology and Wildlife Management. Chapman & Hall, London, UK.
  • East, R. & Pottinger, R.P. (1983) Use of grazing animals to control insect pests of pasture. New Zealand Entomologist, 7, 352359.
  • Edwards, C.A. (1977) Investigations into the influence of agricultural practice on soil invertebrates. Annals of Applied Biology, 87, 515520.
  • Edwards, C.A. (1983) Earthworm ecology in cultivated soils. Earthworm Ecology (ed. J.E.Satchell), pp. 123137. Chapman & Hall, London, UK.
  • Edwards, C.A. & Lofty, J.R. (1975) The invertebrate fauna of the park grass plots: soil fauna. Rothamsted Experimental Station Annual Report for 1974, Part 2. pp. 133154. Rothamsted Experimental Station, Harpenden, Herts.
  • Edwards, C.A. & Lofty, J.R. (1982) Nitrogenous fertilizers and earthworm populations in agricultural soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 14, 515521.
  • Evans, A. (1997) The importance of mixed farming for seed-eating birds in the UK. Farming and Birds in Europe: The Common Agricultural Policy and its Implications for Bird Conservation (eds D.J.Pain & M.W.Pienkowski), pp. 331357. Academic Press, London, UK.
  • Feare, C. (1984) The Starling. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
  • Feber, R.E., Johnson, P.J., Smith, H., Bines, M., Macdonald, D.W. (1995) The effects of arable field margin management on the abundance of beneficial arthropods. Integrated Crop Protection: Towards Sustainability? (eds R.G.Mckinley & D.Atkinson), pp. 163170. BCPC Symposium Proceedings No. 63. British Crop Protection Council, Farnborough, UK.
  • Feber, R.E., Smith, H., Macdonald, D.W. (1996) The effects of management of uncropped edges of arable fields on butterfly abundance. Journal of Applied Ecology, 33, 11911205.
  • Fenner, M. & Palmer, L. (1998) Grassland management to promote diversity: creation of a patchy sward by mowing and fertilizer regimes. Field Studies, 9, 313324.
  • Ferguson, C.M., Barratt, B.I.P., Jones, P.A. (1988) Control of the grey field slug (Deroceras reticulatum (Müller)) by stock management prior to direct-drilled pasture establishment. Journal of Agricultural Science, 111, 443449.
  • Fisher, M.H. & Mrozik, H. (1989) Chemistry. Ivermectin and Abamectin (ed. W.C.Campbell), pp. 123. Springer, New York, NY.
  • Floate, K.D. (1998) Off-target effects of ivermectin on insects and dung degradation in southern Alberta, Canada. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 88, 2535.
  • Frame, J., Baker, R.D., Henderson, A.R. (1995) Advances in grassland technology over the past fifty years. Grassland into the 21st Century (ed. G.E.Pollott), pp. 3163. British Grassland Society Symposium No. 29. British Grassland Society, Reading, UK.
  • Fuller, R.J. (2000) Relationships between recent changes in lowland British agriculture and farmland bird populations: an overview. The Conservation and Ecology of Lowland Farmland Birds (eds N.J.Aebischer, A.D.Evans, P.Grice & J.A.Vickery), pp. 516. British Ornithologists’ Union, Tring, UK.
  • Fuller, R.J. & Gough, S.J. (1999a) Changes in sheep numbers in Britain: implications for bird populations. Biological Conservation, 91, 7389.
  • Fuller, R.J. & Gough, S. (1999b) A major review of sheep grazing impacts. Biological Conservation, 91, 7389.
  • Fuller, R.J., Gregory, R.D., Gibbons, D.W., Marchant, J.H., Wilson, J.D., Baillie, S.R., Carter, N. (1995) Population declines and range contractions among lowland farmland birds in Britain. Conservation Biology, 9, 14251441.
  • Garthwaite, D.G., Thomas, M.R., Banham, A.R., De'Ath, A. (1998) Grassland and Fodder Crops in Great Britain 1997. Pesticide Usage Survey Report No. 151. MAFF, London, UK.
  • Gates, S., Feber, R.E., Macdonald, D.W., Hart, B.J., Tattershall, F.H., Manley, W.J. (1997) Invertebrate populations of field boundaries and set-aside land. Aspects of Applied Biology, 50, 313322.
  • Gibson, C.W.D. (1998) South Somerset SSSIs. A Study of Neutral Grassland Succession. English Nature Research Report No. 266. English Nature, Peterborough, UK.
  • Grant, M.C., Orsman, C., Easton, J., Lodge, C., Smith, M., Thompson, G., Rodwell, S., Moore, N. (1999) Breeding success and causes of breeding failure of curlew Numenius arquata in Northern Ireland. Journal of Applied Ecology, 36, 5974.
  • Grant, S.A., Barthram, G.T., Torvell, L., King, J., Smith, H.K. (1983) Sward management, lamina turnover and tiller population density in continuously stocked Lolium perenne-dominated swards. Grass and Forage Science, 38, 333344.
  • Green, R.E. (1986) The management of lowland wet grasslands for breeding waders. Unpublished report. RSPB, Sandy, UK.
  • Green, R.E. (1988) Effects of environmental factors on the timing and success of breeding of common snipe Gallinage gallinago (Aves: Scolopacidae). Journal of Applied Ecology, 25, 7993.
  • Green, R.E. (1995) The decline of the corncrake Crex crex continues. Bird Study, 42, 6675.
  • Green, R.E. & Cadbury, C.J. (1987) Breeding waders of lowland wet grasslands. RSPB Conservation Review, 1, 1013.
  • Green, R.E. & Stowe, T.J. (1993) The decline of the corncrake Crex crex in Britain and Ireland in relation to habitat change. Journal of Applied Ecology, 30, 689695.
  • Gregory, R.D. & Marchant, J.H. (1996) Population trends of jays, magpies and carrion crows in the United Kingdom. Bird Study, 43, 2837.
  • Halley, R.J. & Soffe, R.J. (1988) Primrose McConnell’s: The Agricultural Notebook, 18th edn. Butterworths, London, UK.
  • Halley, B.A., Vanden Heuvel, W.J.A., Wislocki, P.G., Wardhaugh, K. (1993) Environmental effects of the usage of avermectin in livestock. Proceedings of an Invitational Workshop, Columbus, Ohio, USA (eds R.Herd & L.Strong), pp. 109125. Veterinary Parasitology No. 48. Elsevier, Oxford.
  • Haysom, K.A., McCracken, D.I., Foster, G.N. (1999) Grass conservation headlands – adapting an arable technique for the grassland farmer. Aspects of Applied Biology, 54, 171178.
  • Haysom, K.A., McCracken, D.I., Roberston, D.J., Sotherton, N.W. (2000) Grassland conservation headlands: a new approach to enhancing biodiversity on grazing land. Grazing Management: The Principles and Practice of Grazing for Profit and Environmental Gain Within Temperate Grassland Systems (eds A.J.Rook & P.D.Penning), pp. 159160. British Grassland Society Occasional Symposium No. 43. British Grassland Society, Reading, UK.
  • Herbert, I.J., Heery, S., Meredith, C.R.M. (1990) Distribution of breeding waders in relation to habitat features on the River Shannon callows at Shannon harbour, Ireland, 1987–89. Irish Birds, 4, 203215.
  • Hopkins, A. & Peel, S. (1985) Incidence of weeds in permanent grassland. Weeds, Pests and Diseases of Grasses and Herbage Legumes (ed. J.S.Brockman), pp. 93103. British Grassland Society Occasional Symposium No. 18. British Grassland Society, Hurley, UK.
  • Hudson, R., Tucker, G.M., Fuller, R.J. (1994) Lapwing Vanellus vanellus populations in relation to agricultural changes: a review. The Ecology and Conservation of Lapwings Vanellus vanellus (eds G.M.Tucker, S.M.Davies & R.J.Fuller), pp. 133. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough, UK.
  • Janssens, F., Peeters, A., Tallowin, J.R.B., Bakker, J.P., Bekker, R.M., Fillat, F., Oomes, M.J.M. (1998) Relationship between soil chemical factors and grassland diversity. Plant and Soil, 202, 6978.
  • Jefferson, R.G. & Grice, P.V. (1998) The conservation of lowland wet grassland. European Wet Grassland: Biodiversity, Management and Restoration (eds C.B.Joyce & P.M.Wade), pp. 3148. John Wiley, Chichester, UK.
  • Jefferson, R.G. & Robertson, H.J. (1996) Lowland Grassland: Wildlife Value and Conservation Status. English Nature Research Report No. 169. English Nature, Peterborough, UK.
  • Jensen, A. (1985) The effect of cattle and sheep grazing on salt marsh vegetation at Skallingen, Denmark. Vegetatio, 60, 3748.
  • Joschko, M., Diestel, H., Larink, O. (1989) Assessment of earthworm burrowing efficiency in compacted soil with a combination of morphological and soil physical measurements. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 8, 191196.
  • Keiller, S.W., Buse, A., Cherrett, J.M. (1995) Effects of Sheep Grazing on Upland Arthropods in Snowdonia and mid-Wales. CCW Contract Science Report No. 120. Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Bangor, UK.
  • Kiehl, K., Eischeid, I.M., Gettner, S., Walter, J. (1996) Impact of different sheep grazing intensities on salt marsh vegetation in northern Germany. Journal of Vegetation Science, 7, 180189.
  • Kirby, P. (1992) Habitat Management for Invertebrates: A Practical Handbook. RSPB, JNCC, National Power, UK. The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, Sandy, Beds.
  • Kirkham, F.W., Mountford, J.O., Wilkins, R.J. (1996) The effects of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus addition on the vegetation of a Somerset peat moor under cutting management. Journal of Applied Ecology, 33, 10131029.
  • Kretzschmar, A. (1991) Burrowing ability of the earthworm Aporrectodea longa limited by soil compaction and water potential. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 11, 4851.
  • Lack, P. (1986) The Atlas of Wintering Birds in Britain and Ireland. Poyser, Carlton, UK.
  • Linzell, B.S. & Madge, D.S. (1986) Effects of pesticides and fertilizer on invertebrate populations of grass and wheat plots in Kent in relation to productivity and yield. Grass and Forage Science, 41, 159174.
  • Lister, M.D. (1964) The Lapwing Habitat Enquiry 1960–1961. Bird Study, 11, 128147.
  • McCracken, D.I. (1993) The potential for avermectins to affect wildlife. Veterinary Parasitology, 48, 273280.
  • McCracken, D.I. & Bignal, E.M. (1991) Chemical Alternatives to Treatment of Cattle with Ivermectin. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough, UK.
  • McCracken, D.I. & Bignal, E.M. (1998) Applying the results of ecological studies to land-use policies and practices. Journal of Applied Ecology, 35, 961967.
  • McCracken, D.I. & Foster, G.N. (1993) The effect of ivermectin on the invertebrate fauna associated with cow dung. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 12, 7384.
  • McCracken, D.I., Foster, G.N., Kelly, A. (1995) Factors affecting the size of leatherjacket (Diptera: Tipulidae) populations in pastures in the west of Scotland. Applied Soil Ecology, 2, 203213.
  • Macdonald, D.W., Feber, R.E., Tattershall, F.H., Johnson, P.J. (2000) Ecological experiments in farmland conservation. The Ecological Consequences of Environmental Heterogeneity (eds M.J.Hutchings, E.A.John & A.J.A.Stewart). pp. 257378. British Ecological Society Symposium No. 40. Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK.
  • McNeill, S. (1973) The dynamics of a population of Leptoterna dolabrata (Heteroptera: Miridae) in relation to its food resources. Journal of Animal Ecology, 42, 495507.
  • Madsen, M., Nielsen, B.O., Holter, P., Pedersen, O.C., Jespersen, J.B., Jensen, K.M., Nansen, P., Gronvold, J. (1990) Treating cattle with ivermectin: effects on the fauna and decomposition of dung pats. Journal of Applied Ecology, 27, 115.
  • MAFF, The Scottish Office Agriculture, Environment & Fisheries Department, Department of Agriculture for Northern Ireland & Welsh Office (1997) The Digest of Agricultural Census Statistics, United Kingdom. The Stationery Office, London, UK.
  • Marrs, R.H. (1993) Soil fertility and nature conservation in Europe: theoretical considerations and practical management solutions. Advances in Ecological Research, 24, 241300.
  • Marshall, E.J.P. & Hopkins, A. (1990) Plant species composition and dispersal in agricultural land. Species Dispersal in Agricultural Habitats (eds R.G.H.Bunce & D.C.Howard), pp. 98116. Belhaven Press, London, UK.
  • Marshall, V.G. (1977) Effects of Manures and Fertilizers on Soil Fauna: A Review. Commonwealth Bureau of Soils, Special Publication No. 3. Farnham Royal Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau, Wallingford, UK.
  • Mason, C.F. & Macdonald, S.M. (1976) Aspects of the breeding biology of the snipe. Bird Study, 23, 3338.
  • Mayhew, P. & Houston, D. (1989) Feeding site selection by wigeon Anas penelope in relation to water. Ibis, 131, 18.
  • Merry, R.J., Jones, R., Theodorou, M.K. (2000) The conservation of grass. Grass, its Production and Utilization, 3rd edn (ed. A.Hopkins), pp. 196228. Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK.
  • Milsom, T.P., Ennis, D.C., Haskell, D.J., Langton, S.D., McKay, H.V. (1998) Design of grassland feeding areas for waders during winter: the relative importance of sward landscape factors and human disturbance. Biological Conservation, 84, 119129.
  • Milsom, T.P., Holditch, R.S., Rochard, J.B.A. (1985) Diurnal use of an airfield and adjacent agricultural habitats by lapwings Vanellus vanellus. Journal of Applied Ecology, 22, 313326.
  • Milsom, T.P., Langton, S.D., Parkin, W.K., Peel, S., Bishop, J.D., Hart, J.D., Moores, N.P. (2000) Habitat models of bird species distribution: an aid to the management of coastal grazing marshes. Journal of Applied Ecology, 37, 706727.
  • Morris, M.G. (1971) Differences between the invertebrate faunas of grazed and ungrazed chalk grassland. IV. Abundance and diversity of Homoptera: Auchenorrhynca. Journal of Applied Ecology, 8, 3752.
  • Morris, M.G. (1973) The effects of seasonal grazing on the Heteroptera and Auchenorrhynca (Hemiptera) of chalk grassland. Journal of Applied Ecology, 10, 761780.
  • Morris, M.G. (1979) Responses of grassland invertebrates to management by cutting. II. Heteroptera. Journal of Applied Ecology, 16, 417432.
  • Morris, M.G. (1981) Responses of grassland invertebrates to management by cutting. III. Adverse effects on Auchenorrhynca. Journal of Applied Ecology, 18, 107123.
  • Morris, M.G. (1990a) The effects of management on the invertebrate community of calcareous grassland. Calcareous Grasslands – Ecology and Management (eds S.H.Hillier, D.W.H.Walton & D.A.Wells), pp. 128133. Bluntisham Books, Huntingdon, UK.
  • Morris, M.G. (1990b) The Hemiptera of two sown calcareous grasslands. II. Differences between treatments. Journal of Applied Ecology, 27, 379393.
  • Morris, M.G. (2000) The effects of structure and its dynamics on the ecology and conservation of arthropods in British grasslands. Biological Conservation, 95, 129142.
  • Morris, M.G. & Lakhani, K.H. (1979) Responses of grassland invertebrates to management by cutting. I. Species diversity of Hemiptera. Journal of Applied Ecology, 16, 7798.
  • Morris, M.G. & Rispin, W.E. (1987) Abundance and diversity of the coleopterous fauna of a calcareous grassland under different cutting regimes. Journal of Applied Ecology, 24, 451465.
  • Morris, M.G. & Rispin, W.E. (1988) A beetle fauna of oolitic limestone grassland, and the responses of species to conservation management by different cutting regimes. Biological Conservation, 43, 87105.
  • Mountford, J.O., Lakhani, K.H., Kirkham, F.W. (1993) Experimental assessment of the effects of nitrogen addition under hay-cutting and aftermath grazing on the vegetation of meadows on a Somerset peat moor. Journal of Applied Ecology, 30, 321332.
  • Mountford, J.O., Tallowin, J.R.B., Kirkham, F.W., Lakhani, K.H. (1994) Effects of inorganic fertilizers in flower-rich hay meadows on the Somerset Levels. Grassland Management and Nature Conservation (eds R.J.Hagger & S.Peel), pp. 7485. British Grassland Society Occasional Symposium No. 28. British Grassland Society, Reading, UK.
  • Nairn, R.G.W., Herbert, I.J., Heery, S. (1988) Breeding waders and other wet grassland birds of the Shannon Callows, Ireland. Irish Birds, 3, 521537.
  • Norris, K., Brindley, E.A., Cook, T., Babbs, S., Forster Brown, C., Yaxley, R. (1998) Is the density of redshank Tringa totanus nesting on saltmarshes in Great Britain declining due to changes in grazing management? Journal of Applied Ecology, 35, 621634.
  • Nuutinen, V., Pitkanen, J., Kuusela, E., Widbom, T., Lohilahti, H. (1998) Spatial variation of an earthworm community related to soil properties and yield in a grass–clover field. Applied Soil Ecology, 8, 8594.
  • O'Connor, R.J. & Shrubb, M. (1986) Farming and Birds. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Orr, R.J., Parsons, A.J., Treacher, T.T., Penning, P.D. (1988) Seasonal patterns of grass production under cutting or continuous stocking management. Grass and Forage Science, 34, 199207.
  • Pain, D.J., Hill, D., McCracken, D.I. (1997) Impact of agricultural intensification of pastoral systems on bird distributions in Britain 1970–90. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 64, 1932.
  • Parish, T., Lakhani, K.H., Sparks, T.H. (1994) Modelling the relationship between bird population variables and hedgerow and other field margin attributes. I. Species richness of winter, summer and breeding birds. Journal of Applied Ecology, 31, 764775.
  • Pärt, T. & Söderström, B. (1999) Conservation value of semi-natural pastures in Sweden: contrasting botanical and avian measures. Biological Conservation, 13, 755765.
  • Perkins, A.J., Whittingham, M.J., Bradbury, R.B., Wilson, J.D., Morris, A.J., Barnett, P.R. (2000) Habitat characteristics affecting use of lowland agricultural grasslands by birds in winter. Biological Conservation, 95, 279294.
  • Potts, G.R. (1986) The Partridge Pesticides, Predation and Conservation. Collins, London, UK.
  • Redfern, C.P.F. (1982) Lapwing nest sites and chick mobility in relation to habitat. Bird Study, 29, 201208.
  • Rees, E.C. (1990) Bewick’s swans: their feeding ecology and coexistence with other grazing anatidae. Journal of Applied Ecology, 27, 939951.
  • Richards, I.R. & Wolton, K.M. (1976) The spatial distribution of excreta under intensive cattle grazing. Journal of the British Grassland Society, 31, 8992.
  • Rodwell, J.S. (1992) British Plant Communities. Vol. 3. Grasslands and Montane Communities. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Satchell, J.E. (1955) Some aspects of earthworm ecology. Soil Zoology (ed. D.K.mcE.Kevan), pp. 180201. Butterworths, London, UK.
  • Schön, M. (1999) On the significance of micro-structures in arable land: does the skylark (Alauda arvensis) show a preference for places with stunted growth? Journal für Ornithologie, 140, 8791.
  • Scullion, J. & Ramshaw, G.A. (1987) Effects of manurial treatments on earthworm activity in grassland. Biological Agriculture and Horticulture, 4, 271281.
  • Self, M., O'Brien, M., Hirons, G. (1994) Hydrological management for waterfowl on RSPB lowland wet grassland reserves. RSPB Conservation Review, 8, 4556.
  • Shrubb, M. (1990) Effects of agricultural change on nesting lapwing V. vanellus. Bird Study, 37, 115127.
  • Shrubb, M. & Lack, P.C. (1991) Effects of agricultural change on nesting lapwings Vanellus vanellus in England and Wales. Bird Study, 37, 115127.
  • Siriwardena, G.M., Baillie, S.R., Buckland, S.T., Fewster, R.M., Marchant, J.H., Wilson, J.D. (1998) Trends in abundance of farmland birds: a quantitative comparison of smoothed Common Birds Census indices. Journal of Applied Ecology, 35, 2443.
  • Siriwardena, G.M., Crick, H.Q.P., Baillie, S.R., Wilson, J.D. (2000) Agricultural land use and the spatial distribution of granivorous lowland farmland birds. Ecography, 23, 70027719.
  • Skinner, R.J. (1997) Lime – Who Needs it? Grass Farmer Series (ed. H.Daybell). The British Grassland Society, Reading, UK.
  • Skinner, R.J., Church, B.M., Kershaw, C.D. (1992) Recent trends in soil pH and nutrient status in England and Wales. Soil Use and Management, 8, 1620.
  • Smith, R.S. (1994) Effects of fertilizers on plant species composition and conservation interest of UK grassland. Grassland Management and Nature Conservation (eds R.J.Haggar & S.Peel), pp. 6473. British Grassland Society Occasional Symposium No. 28. British Grassland Society, Reading, UK.
  • Smith, R.S. & Jones, L. (1991) The phenology of mesotrophic grassland in the Pennine Dales, northern England: historic hay cutting dates, vegetation variation and plant species phenologies. Journal of Applied Ecology, 28, 4259.
  • Southwood, T.R.E., Brown, V.K., Reader, P.M. (1979) The relationships of plant and insect diversities in succession. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society of, 12, 327348.
  • Standen, V. (1984) Production and diversity of enchytraeids, earthworms and plants in fertilized hay meadow plots. Journal of Applied Ecology, 21, 293312.
  • Strong, D.W., Lawton, J.H., Southwood, T.R.E. (1984) Insects on Plant Community Patterns and Mechanisms. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, UK.
  • Strong, L. & Wall, R. (1994) Effects of ivermectin and moxidectin on the insects of cattle dung. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 84, 403409.
  • Strong, L., Wall, R., Woolford, A., Djeddour, D. (1996) The effect of faecally excreted ivermectin and fenbendazole on the insect colonisation of cattle dung following the oral administration of sustained-release boluses. Veterinary Parasitology, 62, 253266.
  • Tallowin, J.R.B. & Brookman, S.K.E. (1996) The impact of differences in nitrogen content, nitrogen utilization and loss from laminae on competition between four grass species in an old pasture. Journal of Agricultural Science, 126, 2535.
  • Tallowin, J.R.B., Brookman, S.K.E., Santos, G.L. (1995) Leaf growth and utilization in four grass species under steady state continuous grazing. Journal of Agricultural Science, 124, 403417.
  • Tallowin, J.R.B., Williams, J.H.H., Kirkham, F.W. (1989) Some consequences of imposing different continuous grazing pressures in the spring on tiller demography and leaf growth. Journal of Agricultural Science, 112, 115122.
  • Tallowin, J.R.B., Williams, J.H.H., Large, R.V. (1986) Some consequences of imposing different continuous grazing pressures in the spring on sward morphology, herbage quality and the performance of young beef cattle. Journal of Agricultural Science, 106, 129139.
  • Tansley, A.G. (1939) The British Islands and Their Vegetation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Thomas, C.F.G. & Jepson, P.C. (1997) Field-scale effects of farming practices on linyphiid spider populations in grass and cereals. Entmologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 84, 5969.
  • Thomas, G.J. (1980) The ecology of breeding waterfowl at the Ouse Washes, England. Wildfowl, 31, 7388.
  • Thomas, G.J. (1982) Autumn and winter feeding ecology of waterfowl at the Ouse Washes, England. Journal of the Zoological Society of London, 197, 131172.
  • Thomas, M.R. & Garthwaite, D.G. (1994) Grassland and Fodder Crops in Great Britain 1993. Pesticide Usage Survey Report No. 119. MAFF, London, UK.
  • Townsend, D.J. (1981) The importance of field feeding to the survival of wintering male and female curlews Numenius arquata in the Tees estuary. Feeding and Survival Strategies of Estuarine Organisms (eds N.V.Jones & W.J.Wolff), pp. 261273. Plenum Press, New York, NY.
  • Tucker, G.M. (1992) Effects of agricultural practices on field use by invertebrate-feeding birds in winter. Journal of Applied Ecology, 29, 779790.
  • Tucker, G.M. & Heath, M.F. (1994) Birds in Europe: Their Conservation Status. Birdlife International, Cambridge, UK.
  • Tyler, G., Green, R.E., Casey, C. (1998) Survival and behaviour of corncrake Crex crex chicks during the mowing of agricultural grassland. Bird Study, 45, 3550.
  • Unwin, R.J. & Lewis, S. (1986) The effect upon earthworms of very large applications of pig slurry to grassland. Agricultural Wastes, 16, 6773.
  • Van Breemen, N., Driscoll, C.T., Mulder, J. (1984) Acidic deposition and internal proton sources in acidification of soils and waters. Nature, 307, 599604.
  • Van Wingerden, W.K.R.E., Vankreveld, A.R., Bongers, W. (1992) Analysis of species composition and abundance of grasshoppers (Orth, Acrididae) in natural and fertilized grasslands. Journal of Applied Entomology, 113, 138152.
  • Vickery, J.A. & Fuller, R.J. (1998) Use of Cereal Fields by Birds: A Review of Relation to Field Margin Management. BTO Research Report No. 195. British Trust for Ornithology, Thetford, UK.
  • Vickery, J.A. & Gill, J.A. (1999) Managing grassland for wild geese: a review. Biological Conservation, 89, 93106.
  • Vickery, J.A., Sutherland, W.J., O'Brien, M., Watkinson, A.R., Yallop, A. (1997) Managing coastal grazing marshes for breeding waders and overwintering geese: is there a conflict? Biological Conservation, 79, 2334.
  • Vickery, J.A., Tallowin, J.T., Feber, R.E., Atkinson, P.W., Asteraki, E.J., Fuller, R.J., Brown, V.K. (1999) Changes in Lowland Grassland Management; Implications for Invertebrates and Birds. BTO Research Report No. 222. British Trust for Ornithology, Thetford, UK.
  • Volkl, W., Zwolfer, H., Romstock-Volkl, M., Schmelzer, C. (1993) Habitat management in calcareous grasslands: effects on the insect community developing in flower heads of Cynarea. Journal of Applied Ecology, 30, 307315.
  • Wardhaugh, K.G., Mahon, R.J., Axelsen, A., Rowland, M.W., Wanjura, W. (1993) Effects of ivermectin residues in sheep dung on the development and survival of the bug fly Musca vetustissima and a scarabaeine dung beetle Euniticellus fulvus. Veterinary Parasitology, 48, 139157.
  • Wilson, J.D., Evans, J., Browne, S.J., King, J.R. (1997) Territory distribution and breeding success of skylarks Alauda arvensis on organic and intensive farmland in southern England. Journal of Applied Ecology, 34, 14621478.
  • Wilson, J.D., Taylor, R., Muirhead, L.B. (1996) Field use by farmland birds in winter: an analysis of field type preferences using resampling methods. Bird Study, 43, 320332.
  • Wratten, S.D., Mead-Briggs, M., Gettinby, G., Ericsson, G., Baggott, D.G. (1993) An evaluation of the potential effects of ivermectin on the decomposition of cattle dung pats. Veterinary Record, 133, 365371.
  • Zajonc, I. (1975) Variations in meadow associations caused by the influence of nitrogen fertilizers and liquid-manure irrigation. Progress in Soil Zoology (ed. J.Vanek), pp. 497503. Proceedings of the 5th International Colloquium of Soil Zoology. Junk, The Hague, the Netherlands.