SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Adams, L.W. (1994) Urban Wildlife Habitats, a Landscape Perspective. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN.
  • Andrén, H. (1994) Effects of habitat fragmentation on birds and mammals in landscape with different proportions of suitable habitat: a review. Oikos, 38, 355366.
  • Baillie, S.R., Sutherland, W.J., Freeman, S.N., Gregory, R.D. & Pzaradis, E. (2000) Consequences of large-scale processes for the conservation of bird populations. Journal of Applied Ecology, 37, 88102.
  • Bessinger, S.R. & Osborn, D.R. (1982) Effects of urbanization on avian community organization. Condor, 84, 7583.
  • Bezzel, E. (1985) Birdlife in intensively used rural and urban environments. Ornis Fennica, 62, 9095.
  • Bibby, C.J., Burgess, N.D. & Hill, D.A. (1992) Bird Census Techniques. Academic Press, London, UK.
  • Birkhead, T. (1991) The Magpies, Ecology and Behaviour of Black-Billed and Yellow-Billed Magpies. T. & A.D. Poyser, London, UK.
  • Blair, R.B. (1996) Land use and avian species diversity along an urban gradient. Ecological Applications, 6, 506519.
  • Blondel, J., Vuilleumer, F., Marcus, L.F. & Terouanne, E. (1984) Is there ecomorphological convergency among Mediterranean bird communities in Chile, California and France? Evolutionary Biology, 18, 141213.
  • Böhning-Gaese, K. (1997) Determinants of avian species richness at different spatial scales. Journal of Biogeography, 24, 4960.
  • Campbell, C.A. & Dagg, A.I. (1976) Bird populations in downtown and suburban Kitchener-Waterloo, Ontario. Ontario Field Biology, 30, 122.
  • Chou, Y.H. & Soret, S. (1996) Neighborhood effects in bird distributions, Navarre, Spain. Environmental Management, 20, 675687.
  • Clergeau, P. (2000) Biodiversité En Milieu Urbain; Quelle Faune Sauvage Dans les Espaces Verts? Le Ministère de l’Environnement, Paris, France.
  • Clergeau, P., Savard, J.P.L., Mennechez, G. & Falardeau, G. (1998) Bird abundance and diversity along an urban–rural gradient: a comparative study between two cities on different continents. Condor, 100, 413425.
  • Coombs, C.F.B., Isaacson, A.J., Murton, R.K., Thearle, R.J.P. & Westwood, N.J. (1981) Collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) in urban habitats. Journal of Applied Ecology, 18, 4162.
  • Davis, A.M. & Glick, T.F. (1978) Urban ecosystems and island biogeography. Environmental Conservation, 5, 299304.
  • De Graaf, R.M., Geis, A.D. & Healy, P.A. (1991) Bird population and habitat surveys in urban areas. Landscape and Urban Planning, 21, 181188.
  • Dickman, C.R. & Doncaster, C.P. (1989) The ecology of small mammals in urban habitats. II. Demography and dispersal. Journal of Animal Ecology, 58, 119127.
  • Emlen, J.T. (1974) An urban bird community in Tucson, Arizona: derivation, structure, regulation. Condor, 76, 184197.
  • Erz, W. (1966) Ecological principles in the urbanization of birds. Ostrich, 6, 357363.
  • Forman, R.T.T. & Godron, M. (1986) Landscape Ecology. Wiley, New York, NY.
  • Geis, A.D. (1974) Effects of urbanization and type of urban development on bird populations. Proceedings of the University of Massachusetts (eds J.H.Noyes & D.R.Progulske), pp. 97105. Amherst, Massachusetts.
  • Germaine, S.S. (1995) Relationships of Birds, Lizards, and Nocturnal Rodents to their Habitat in the Greater Tucson Area, Arizona. Technical Report 20. Arizona Game and Fish Department, Phoenix, AZ.
  • Germaine, S.S., Rosenstock, S.S., Schweinsburg, R.E. & Richardson, W.S. (1998) Relationships among breeding birds, habitat, and residential development in greater Tucson, Arizona. Ecological Applications, 8, 680691.
  • Gilbert, O.L. (1989) The Ecology of Urban Habitats. Chapman & Hall, Cambridge, UK.
  • Goldstein, E.L., Gross, M. & DeGraaf, R.M. (1986) Breeding birds and vegetation: a quantitative assessment. Urban Ecology, 9, 377385.
  • Hadidian, J., Sauer, J., Swarth, C., Handly, P., Droege, S., Williams, C., Huff, J. & Didden, G. (1997) A citywide breeding bird survey for Washington, DC. Urban Ecosystems, 1, 87102.
  • Hansen, A.J. & Urban, D.L. (1992) Avian response to landscape pattern: the role of species’ life histories. Landscape Ecology, 7, 163180.
  • Harris, S. (1977) Distribution, habitat utilization and age structure of a suburban fox Vulpes vulpes population. Mammalian Review, 7, 2539.
  • Havlin, J. (1962) Variability of somatic characters in the European blackbird Turdus merula. Zoology Listy, 14, 193208.
  • Heck, K.L., Van Belle, G. & Simberloff, D. (1975) Explicit calculation of the rarefaction diversity measurement and the determination of sufficient sample size. Ecology, 56, 14591461.
  • Hohtola, E. (1978) Differential changes in bird community structure with urbanization: a study in central Finland. Ornis Scandinavica, 9, 9499.
  • Huhtalo, H. & Jarvinen, O. (1977) Quantitative composition of the urban bird community in Tornio, northern Finland. Bird Study, 24, 179185.
  • Jokimäki, J. (1989) Taajamalinnuston alueellinen ja ajallinen vaihtelu ja pitkäaikaismuutokset keskiboreaallisella linnustovyöhykkeellä. PhD Thesis. University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
  • Jokimäki, J. (1999) Occurrence of breeding bird species in urban parks: effects of park structure and broad-scale variables. Urban Ecosystems, 3, 2134.
  • Jokimäki, J. & Huhta, E. (2000) Nest predation and habitat selection of birds along an urban gradient. Condor, 102, 838847.
  • Jokimäki, J. & Suhonen, J. (1998) Distribution and habitat selection of wintering birds in urban environments. Landscape and Urban Planning, 39, 253263.
  • Jokimäki, J., Suhonen, J., Inki, K. & Jokinen, S. (1996) Biogeographical comparison of winter bird assemblages in urban environments in Finland. Journal of Biogeography, 23, 379386.
  • Jones, D.N. (1983) The suburban bird community of Townsville, a tropical city. Emu, 83, 1217.
  • Jongman, R.H.G., Ter Braak, C.J.F. & Tongeren, O.F.R. (1995) Data Analysis in Community and Landscape Ecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Konstantinov, V.M. (1996) Anthropogenic transformations of bird communities in the forest zone of the Russian Plain. Acta Ornithologica, 31, 5358.
  • Kubes, J. & Fuchs, R. (1998) Village as a bird refuge in cultural landscape. Ekologia (Bratislava), 17, 208220.
  • Lancaster, R.K. & Rees, W.E. (1979) Bird communities and the structure of urban habitats. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 57, 23582368.
  • Luniak, M. (1990) Urban Ecological Studies in Central and Eastern Europe. Ossolineum, Wroclaw, Poland.
  • Marchetti, M. (1976) Recherche sur l’écologie des oiseaux nicheurs de la zone urbaine de Marseille. PhD Thesis. Université de Saint-Jérome, Marseille, France.
  • Michelson, W. (1970) Man and His Urban Environment: A Sociological Approach. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.
  • Middleton, J. (1994) Effects of urbanization on biodiversity in Canada. Biodiversity in Canada: A Science Assessment for Environment Canada, pp. 115120. Environment Canada, Ottawa, Canada.
  • Morneau, F., Décarie, R., Pelletier, R., Lambert, D., Desgranges, J.L. & Savard, J.P.L. (1999) Changes in breeding bird richness and abundance in Montreal parks over a period of 15 years. Landscape and Urban Planning, 44, 111121.
  • Morneau, F., St-Georges, M., Lambert, D. & Desgranges, J.L. (1996) Assemblages d’oiseaux en hiver dans des parcs urbains de 39 villes des basses-terres du Saint-Laurent: richesse, habitat et comparaison biogéographique. Rapport technique no. 258. Environnement Canada, Canada.
  • Munyenyembe, F., Harris, J. & Hone, J. (1989) Determinants of bird populations in an urban area. Australian Journal of Ecology, 14, 549557.
  • Niemelä, J. (1999) Ecology and urban planning. Biodiversity and Conservation, 8, 11131.
  • O'Neill, R.V. (1989) Perspectives in hierarchy and scale. Perspectives in Ecological Theory (eds J.Roughgarden, R.M.May & S.A.Levin), pp. 140156. Princeton University of Press, Princeton, NJ.
  • Opdam, P., Rijsdijk, G. & Hustings, F. (1985) Birds communities in small woods in an agricultural landscape: effects of area and isolation. Biological Conservation, 34, 333352.
  • Owen, D.F. (1978) Insect diversity in an English suburban garden. Perspectives in Urban Entomology (eds S.Frankie & G.W.Koehler), pp. 1330. Academic Press, New York, NY.
  • Rauhala, P. (1994) Kemin-Tornion seudun linnusto 2. Raahen Kirjatyö Oy, Raahe, Finland.
  • Roy, D.B., Hill, M.O. & Rothery, P. (1999) Effects of urban land cover on the local species pool in Britain. Ecography, 22, 507515.
  • Sasvari, L. (1990) Structure of bird communities in urban and suburban habitats. Urban Ecological Studies in Central and Eastern Europe (ed. M.Luniak), pp. 155166. Polish Academy of Sciences, Wroclaw, Poland.
  • Savard, J.-P.L. (1978) Birds in metropolitan Toronto: distribution, relationships with habitat features, and nesting sites. PhD Thesis. University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
  • Savard, J.P.L., Clergeau, P. & Mennechez, G. (2000) Biodiversity concepts and urban ecosystems. Landscape and Urban Planning, 659, 112.
  • Siegfried, W.R. (1968) Ecological composition of the avifaunal community in a Stellenbosh suburb. Ostrich, 39, 105126.
  • Sodhi, N.S. (1992) Comparison between urban and rural bird communities in prairie Saskatchewan: urbanization and short-term population trends. Canadian Field Naturalist, 106, 210215.
  • SPPS Inc. (1999) SPPS for Windows. Release 9.0.1. User's guide. SPPS Inc., Chicago, Ill.
  • Svensson, S.E. (1974) Interpersonal variation in species map evaluation in bird census work with the mapping method. Acta Ornithologica, 14, 322338.
  • Tatibouet, F. (1981) Approche écologique d’un établissement humain, exemple de la commune urbaine de Lyon. PhD Thesis. Université Claude Bernard, Lyon, France.
  • Thompson, P.S., Greenwood, J.J.D. & Greenway, K. (1993) Birds in European gardens in the winter and spring of 1988–89. Bird Study, 40, 120134.
  • Tilghman, N.G. (1987) Characteristics of urban woodlands affecting breeding bird diversity and abundance. Landscape and Urban Planning, 14, 481495.
  • Väisänen, R.A., Lammi, E. & Koskimies, P. (1998) Distribution, Numbers and Population Changes of Finnish Breeding Birds [In Finnish with English summary]. Otava, Helsinki, Finland.
  • Vale, T.R. & Vale, G.R. (1976) Suburban bird populations in west-central California. Journal of Biogeography, 2, 157165.
  • Vauhkonen, M. (1990) Heinolan kaupunkialueen pesimälinnusto vuosina 1989–90. Päijät-Hämeen Linnut, 21, 112121.
  • Weber, W.C. (1972) Birds in cities: a study of populations, foraging ecology, and nest-sites of urban birds. PhD Thesis. University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
  • Wilcox, B.A. & Murphy, D.O. (1985) Conservation strategy: the effects of fragmentation on extinction. American Naturalist, 125, 879887.
  • Yeatman-Berthelot, D. & Jarry, G. (1994) Nouvel Atlas Des Oiseaux Nicheurs de France, 1985–1989. Société Ornithologique de France, Paris, France.