SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Altmann, J. (1974) Observational study of behaviour: sampling methods. Behaviour, 49, 227267.
  • Amiaud, B. (1998) Dynamique végétale d’un écosystème prairial soumis à différentes modalités de pâturage. Exemple des communaux du Marais Poitevin. Thèse de doctorat. Université de Rennes 1, Rennes, France.
  • Arnold, G.W. & Dudzinski, M.L. (1978) Ethology of Free Living Domestic Animals. Elsevier, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
  • Bakker, J. & Van Wieren, S.E. (1998) The impact of grazing on plant communities. Grazing and Conservation Management (eds M.F.WallisDeVries, J.P.Bakker & S.E.Van Wieren), pp. 137184. Kluwer Academic Publishers, London, UK.
  • Bassett, P.A. (1978) The vegetation of a Camargue pasture. Journal of Ecology, 66, 803827.
  • Begon, M., Harper, J.L. & Townsend, C.R. (1996) Ecology: Individuals, Populations and Communities, 3rd edn. Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK.
  • Bell, R.H.V. (1970) The use of the herb layer by grazing ungulates in the Serengeti. Animal Populations in Relation to Their Food Resources (ed. A.Watson), pp. 111123. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, UK.
  • Bokdam, J. & Gleichman, J. (2000) Effects of grazing by free-ranging cattle on vegetation dynamics in a continental north-west European heathland. Journal of Applied Ecology, 37, 415431.
  • Cumming, D.H.M. (1982) The influence of large herbivores on savanna structure in Africa. Ecology of Tropical Savannas (eds B.J.Huntley & B.H.Walker), pp. 217244. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany.
  • Dulphy, J.P., Jouany, J., Martin-Rosset, W. & Thériez, M. (1994) Aptitudes comparées de différentes espèces d’herbivores domestiques à ingérer et digérer des fourrages distribués à l’auge. Annales Zootechnie, 43, 1132.
  • Duncan, P. (1983) Determinants of the use of habitat by horses in a Mediterranean wetland. Journal of Animal Ecology, 52, 93111.
  • Duncan, P. (1992) Horses and Grasses. The Nutritional Ecology of Equids and Their Impact on the Camargue. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY.
  • Duncan, P., Foose, T.J., Gordon, I.J., Gakahu, C.G. & Lloyd, M. (1990) Comparative nutrient extraction from forages by grazing bovids and equids: a test of the nutritional model of equid/bovid competition and coexistence. Oecologia, 84, 411418.
  • Duncan, P., Hewison, A.J.M., Houte, S., Rosoux, R., Tournebize, T., Dubs, F., Burel, F. & Bretagnolle, V. (1999) Long-term changes in agricultural practices and wildfowling in an internationally important wetland, and their effects on the guild of wintering ducks. Journal of Applied Ecology, 36, 1123.
  • Fleurance, G., Duncan, P. & Mallevaud, B. (2001) Daily intake and the selection of feeding sites by horses in heterogeneous wet grasslands. Animal Research (Annales Zootechnie), 50, 149156.
  • Gordon, I.J. (1989a) Vegetation community selection by ungulates on the Isle of Rhum. II. Vegetation community selection. Journal of Applied Ecology, 26, 5364.
  • Gordon, I.J. (1989b) Vegetation community selection by ungulates on the Isle of Rhum. III. Determinants of vegetation community selection. Journal of Applied Ecology, 26, 6579.
  • Gordon, I.J. (1995) Animal-based techniques for grazing ecology research. Small Ruminants Research, 16, 203214.
  • Gordon, I.J. & Illius, A.W. (1989) Resource partitioning by ungulates on the Isle of Rhum. Oecologia, 79, 383389.
  • Gross, J.E., Shipley, L.A., Hobbs, N.T., Spalinger, D.E. & Wunder, B.A. (1993) Functional response of herbivores in food-concentrated patches: test of a mechanistic model. Ecology, 74, 778791.
  • Gwynne, M.D. & Bell, R.H.V. (1968) Selection of vegetation components by grazing ungulates in the Serengeti National Park. Nature, 220, 390393.
  • Hansen, R.M. & Clark, R.C. (1977) Foods of elk and other ungulates at low elevation in northwestern Colorado. Journal of Wildlife Management, 41, 7680.
  • Hunter, R.F. (1962) Hill sheep and their pasture: a study of sheep grazing in south east Scotland. Journal of Ecology, 56, 989999.
  • Illius, A.W. & Gordon, I.J. (1992) Modelling the nutritional ecology of ungulate herbivores: evolution of body size and competitive interactions. Oecologia, 89, 428434.
  • Janis, C. (1976) The evolutionary strategy of Equidae and the origin of rumen and cecal digestion. Evolution, 30, 757774.
  • Johnson, D.H. (1980) The comparison of usage and availability measurements for evaluating resource preference. Ecology, 61, 6571.
  • Krysl, L.J., Hubbert, M.E., Sowell, B.E., Plumb, G.E., Jewett, T.K., Smith, M.A. & Waggoner, J.W. (1984) Horses and cattle grazing in the Wyoming Red Desert. I. Food habits and dietary overlap. Journal of Range Management, 37, 7276.
  • Kurtén, B. (1968) Pleistocene Mammals of Europe. Weidenfeld & Nicholson, London, UK.
  • May, R.M. (1975) Some notes on estimating the competition matrix. Ecology, 56, 737741.
  • Mesléard, F., Grillas, P. & Lepart, J. (1991) Plant community succession in a coastal wetland after abandonment of cultivation: the example of the Rhone delta. Vegetatio, 94, 3545.
  • Mesochina, P. (2000) Niveau d’ingestion du cheval en croissance au pâturage: mise au point méthodologique et étude de quelques facteurs de variation. Thèse de doctorat. Institut National d’Agronomie Paris-Grignon, Paris, France.
  • Mesochina, P., Martin-Rosset, W., Peyraud, J.L., Duncan, P., Micol, D. & Boulot, S. (1998) Prediction of the digestibility of the diet of horses: evaluation of faecal indices. Grass and Forage Science, 53, 189196.
  • Odberg, F.O. & Francis-Smith, K. (1976) A study on eliminative and grazing behaviour. The use of field by captive horses. Equine Veterinary Journal, 8, 147149.
  • Olsen, F.W. & Hansen, R.M. (1977) Food relations of wild free-roaming horses to livestock and big game, Red Desert, Wyoming. Journal of Range Management, 30, 1720.
  • Oosting, H.F. (1956) The Study of Plant Communities, 2nd edn. W.H. Freeman, San Francisco, CA.
  • Owaga, M.L. (1975) The feeding ecology of wildebeest and zebra in Athi-Kaputei plains. East African Wildlife Journal, 15, 217222.
  • Putman, R.J. (1986) Grazing in Temperate Ecosystems: Large Herbivores and the Ecology of the New Forest. Croom and Helm, London, UK.
  • Putman, R.J. (1996) Competition and Resource Partitioning in Temperate Ungulate Assemblies. Chapman & Hall, London, UK.
  • Putman, R.J., Fowler, A.D. & Tout, S. (1991) Patterns of use of ancient grassland by cattle and horses and effects on vegetational composition and structure. Biological Conservation, 56, 329347.
  • Rogers, P.M. (1981) Ecology of the European wild rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus (L.) in Mediterranean habitats. II. Distribution in the landscape of the Camargue, S. France. Journal of Applied Ecology, 18, 355371.
  • Sinclair, A.R.E. (1977) The African Buffalo. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.
  • SPSS (1998) Systat 9. SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL.
  • Stewart, D.R.M. & Stewart, J. (1970) Food preference data by faecal analysis for African plain ungulates. Zoologica Africana, 15, 115129.
  • Stewart, K.E.J., Bourn, N.A.D. & Thomas, J.A. (2001) An evaluation of three quick methods commonly used to assess sward height in ecology. Journal of Applied Ecology, 38, 11481154.
  • Strasberg, D. (1987) Ecologie de l’invasion de Phillyrea angustifolia en Camargue (Tour du Valat). Mémoire de fin d’études. Ecole National des Ingénieurs des Travaux Agricoles, Dijon, France.
  • Tokeshi, M. (1999) Species Coexistence: Ecological and Evolutionary Perspectives. Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK.
  • Touati, D. (1985) Contributions à la connaissance du profil biochimique des Dicotylédones buissonnantes et arbustives de Méditerranée. Thèse de doctorat. Université Claude Bernard, Lyon, France.
  • Tutin, T.G., Heywood, V.H., Burges, N.A., Valentine, D.H., Walters, S.M. & Webb, D.A. (196480) Flora Europaea. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Van Deursen, E.J.M. & Drost, H.J. (1990) Defoliation and treading by cattle of reed Phragmites australis. Journal of Applied Ecology, 27, 284297.
  • Vulink, J. (2001) Management by grazing of wetlands in reclaimed areas. Doctoral Thesis. University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.
  • Vulink, J.T. & Drost, H.J. (1991) A causal analysis of diet composition in free-ranging cattle in reed-dominated vegetation. Oecologia, 88, 167172.
  • Vulink, J.T. & Van Eerden, M.R. (1998) Hydrological conditions and herbivory as key operators for ecosystem development in Dutch artificial wetlands. Grazing and Conservation Management (eds M.F.WallisDeVries, J.P.Bakker & S.E.Van Wieren), 217252. Kluwer Academic Publishers, London.
  • WallisDeVries, M.F. (1998) Habitat quality and the performance of large herbivores. Grazing and Conservation Management (eds M.F.WallisDeVries, J.P.Bakker & S.E.Van Wieren), 275320. Kluwer Academic Publishers, London.
  • WallisDeVries, M.F., Bakker, J.P. & Van Wieren, S.E. (1998) Grazing and Conservation Management. Kluwer Academic Publishers, London.