SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Amarasekare, P. (1998) Allee effects in metapopulation dynamics. American Naturalist, 39, 298302.
  • Anonymous (1982) The Observer’s Handbook. MET 0·9333. Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, UK.
  • Bierne, B.P. (1975) Biological control attempts by introductions against pest insects in the field in Canada. Canadian Entomologist, 107, 225236.
  • Blumenstock, D.I. & Price, S. (1994) Climates of the States: Hawaii. A Natural History of the Hawaiian Islands, Selected Readings II (ed. E.A.Kay), pp. 94114. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, HI.
  • Crawley, M.J. (1987) What makes a community invasible? Colonisation, Succession and Stability (ed. P.J.Richards), pp. 429453. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, UK.
  • Delobel, A.G.L. & Lubega, M.C. (1984) Rainfall as a mortality factor in the sorghum shootfly Atherigona soccata Rond. (Diptera, Muscidae). Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, 97, 510516.
  • Freckleton, R.P. (2000) Biological control as a learning process. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 15, 263264.
  • Grevstad, F.S. (1996) Establishment of weed control agents under the influences of demographic stochasticity, environmental variability and Allee effects. Proceedings of the IX International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds (eds V.V.Moran & J.H.Hoffman), pp. 261267. University of Cape Town, Stellenbosch, South Africa.
  • Grevstad, F.S. (1999) Factors influencing the chance of population establishment: implications for release strategies in biocontrol. Ecological Applications, 9, 14391447.
  • Haccou, P. & Iwasa, Y. (1996) Establishment probability in fluctuating environments: a branching process model. Theoretical Population Biology, 50, 254280.
  • Hall, R.W. & Ehler, L.E. (1979) Rate of establishment of natural enemies in classical biological control. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America, 25, 280282.
  • Harman, H.M., Syrett, P., Hill, R.L. & Jessep, C.T. (1996) Arthropod introductions for biological control of weeds in New Zealand, 1929–1995. New Zealand Entomologist, 19, 7181.
  • Hill, R.L., Gourlay, A.H. & Winks, C.J. (1993) Choosing gorse spider mite strains to improve establishment in different climates. Proceedings of the Sixth Australasian Grasslands Invertebrate Ecology Conference (ed. R.A.Prestidge), pp. 377383. AgResearch, Hamilton, New Zealand.
  • Hopper, K.R. & Roush, R.T. (1993) Mate finding, dispersal, number released, and the success of biological control introductions. Ecological Entomology, 18, 321331.
  • Julien, M.H., Kerr, J.D. & Chan, R.R. (1984) Biological control of weeds: an evaluation. Protection Ecology, 7, 325.
  • Kareiva (1996) Developing a predictive ecology for non-indigenous species and ecological invasions. Ecology, 77, 16511652.
  • Lande, R. (1993) Risks of population extinction from demographic and environmental stochasticity and random catastrophes. American Naturalist, 142, 911927.
  • Lawton, J.H. (1990) Biological control of plants: a review of generalizations, rules and principles using insects as agents. Alternatives to the chemical control of weeds. Proceedings of an International Conference, July 1989 (eds C.Bassett, L.J.Whitehouse & J.A.Zabkiewicz), pp. 37. Ministry of Forestry, Rotorua, New Zealand.
  • Manaaki Whenua Landcare Research (1996) The Biological Control of Weeds Book. Te Whakapau Taru. A New Zealand Guide. Manaaki Whenua Landcare Research, Lincoln, New Zealand.
  • Markin, G.P., Yoshioka, E.R. & Conant, P. (1996) Biological control of gorse in Hawaii. Proceedings of the IX International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds (eds V.V.Moran & J.H.Hoffman), pp. 371375. University of Cape Town, Stellenbosch, South Africa.
  • Memmott, J., Fowler, S.V. & Hill, R.L. (1998) The effect of release size on the probability of establishment of biological control agents: gorse thrips (Sericothrips staphylinus) released against gorse (Ulex europeus) in New Zealand. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 8, 103115.
  • Moran, V.C. & Hoffman, J.H. (1987) The effects of simulated and natural rainfall on cochineal insects (Homoptera: Dactylopiidae): colony distribution and survival on cactus cladodes. Ecological Entomology, 12, 6168.
  • Moran, V.C., Hoffman, J.H. & Basson, N.C.J. (1987) The effects of simulated rainfall on cochineal insects (Homoptera: Dactylopidiiae): colony composition and survival on cactus cladodes. Ecological Entomology, 12, 5160.
  • Myers, R.A., Barrowman, N.J., Hutching, J.A. & Rosenberg, A.A. (1995) Population dynamics of exploited fish stocks at low population levels. Science, 269, 11061108.
  • National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (2001) Summary of New Zealand Rainfall and Temperature Extremes. http://www.metservice.co.nz/learning/data_climate_extremes.asp (Metservice 2001). National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, New Zealand.
  • Pimm, S.L. (1991) The Balance of Nature? Ecological Issues in the Conservation of Species and Communities. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.
  • Pimm, S.L., Jones, H.L. & Diamond, J. (1988) On the risk of extinction. American Naturalist, 132, 757785.
  • Samways, M.J. (1979) Immigration, population growth and mortality of insects and mites on cassava in Brazil. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 69, 491505.
  • Shea, K. & Possingham, H.P. (2000) Optimum release strategies for biological control agents: an application of stochastic dynamic programming to population management. Journal of Applied Ecology, 37, 7786.
  • SPSS (1998) Release 9·0·0. SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL.
  • Stiling, P. (1990) Calculating the establishment rates of parasitoids in classical biological control. American Entomologist, 36, 225282.
  • Thomas, C.D. (1990) What do real population dynamics tell us about minimum viable population sizes? Conservation Biology, 4, 324327.
  • Tukey, J.W. (1949) One degree of freedom for non-additivity. Biometrics, 5, 232242.
  • Weisser, W.W., Volkl, W. & Hassell, M.P. (1997) The importance of adverse weather conditions for behaviour and population ecology of an aphid parasitoid. Journal of Animal Ecology, 66, 386400.
  • Young, A.M. (1977) Notes on the biology of Hypothyris euclea in Costa Rica (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Ithomiinae). Pan-Pacific Entomology, 53, 104113.