Human sera (167) were screened for antibodies to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) prepared from strains of Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) belonging to a range of serogroups, secreted proteins expressed by attaching and effacing VTEC, enterohaemolysin and H = 7 flagellar proteins. Twelve sera (about 7%) contained antibodies to the LPS of E. coli 05 (one), 026 (two), 0115 (two), 0145 (one), 0163 (one) and 0165 (five). Sera containing antibodies to the LPS of E. coli O26 and O145 also contained antibodies to secreted proteins of 100 and 40 kDa. An additional 34 sera, known to contain antibodies to the lipopolysaccharide of E. coli O157, were examined for antibodies to enterohaemolysin, H = 7 flagellar antigens and bacterial cell surface-associated proteins of 5, 6 and 22 kDa. Three sera contained antibodies to enterohaemolysin and one serum contained antibodies to flagellar proteins. Antibodies to membrane-associated proteins were not detected. It was concluded that enterohaemolysin, H = 7 flagellar proteins and the cell surface-associated proteins were unsuitable for use in immunoassays for providing evidence of infection with VTEC.