The effect of a new sewage treatment plant on faecal indicator numbers, campylobacters and bathing water compliance in Morecambe Bay
Version of Record online: 25 DEC 2001
Journal of Applied Microbiology
Volume 86, Issue 4, pages 603–614, April 1999
How to Cite
Obiri-Danso, K. and Jones, K. (1999), The effect of a new sewage treatment plant on faecal indicator numbers, campylobacters and bathing water compliance in Morecambe Bay. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 86: 603–614. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2672.1999.00703.x
- Issue online: 25 DEC 2001
- Version of Record online: 25 DEC 2001
- 6838/08/98: received 10 August 1998, revised 13 November 1998 and accepted 19 November 1998
- 1984 Comparative study on Salmonella isolation from sewage contaminated natural waters. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 56, 365–371. , &
- Anonymous 1976 Council Directive concerning the quality of bathing water. (76/160/EEC). Official Journal of the European Communities, no. L 31/1–7.
- Anonymous 1988 SPSS-X User's Guide. 3rd edn. SPSS. Wilmslow, UK. Sigma Press.
- Anonymous 1992. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 18th edn. Washington, D.C. USA. APHA/AWWA/WPCF.
- Anonymous 1998 Bathing water quality update. Water and Health, 23, 6.
- 1980 Survival of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni in biological milieus. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 11, 309–313. , , &
- 1987 A study of thermophilic campylobacters in a river system. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 62, 167–176. , , &
- 1985 Urease-positive thermophilic campylobacters. Lancet, i, 1217–1218. , &
- Bridge, P.D. & Sneath, P.H.A. 1983 Numerical taxonomy of Streptococcus. Journal of General Microbiology, 129, 565–597.
- 1987 Waterborne outbreak of Campylobacter lari-associated gastro-enteritis. Lancet, i, 164–165. , , &
- 1989. Collins and Lyne's Microbial Methods. 6th edn. London. Butterworths. , &
- 1991 Sunlight and the survival of enteric bacteria in natural waters. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 70, 265–274. &
- 1994 Sunlight inactivation of enterococci and faecal coliforms in sewage effluent diluted in seawater. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 60, 2049–2058. , &
- 1972. Identification of Enterobacteriaceae. 3rd edn. Minneapolis: Burgess. &
- Environment Agency 1997. Bathing Water Quality in England and Wales 1996: a Summary Report. Bristol: Environment Agency.
- Environment Agency 1998. Bathing Water Quality in England and Wales 1997: a Summary Report. Bristol: Environment Agency.
- 1998 Campylobacters in wild birds: isolations and molecular characterisations. In Campylobacter, Helicobacter.And Related Organisms (eds)Lastovica, A.J. Newell, D.G. & Lastovica, E.E. Cape Town:Rustica Press. , , &
- 1981 Effect of sunlight on survival of indicator bacteria in seawater. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 41, 690–696. , , &
- 1997 Point source discharges to bathing waters. In Technical Feasibility of an a priori Measurement Approach for Managing Bathing Water Quality. Report EUR 17801 EN. Brussels: European Commission.
- 1997 Faecal streptococci as indicators of faecal contamination in water. Journal of Applied Microbiology Symposium Suppl., 83, 110S–119S. , &
- 1984 Modified agar medium for detecting environmental salmonellae by the most-probable-number method. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 48, 1026–1030. , &
- 1994 Waterborne diseases. Inside science. New Scientist, 73, 1–4.
- 1997 Strategies for survival. In: Coliforms and E. Coli: Problem or Solution (eds Kay, D. & Fricker, C), pp. 133–144. London: Royal Society of Chemistry.
- 1998 Wild birds as vectors for Campylobacter. In Campylobacter, Helicobacter.And Related Organisms (eds )Lastovica, A.J. Newell, D.G. & Lastovica, E.E.Cape Town: Rustica Press. , , &
- 1990a Correlation between environmental monitoring of thermophilic campylobacters in sewage effluent and the incidence of campylobacter infection in the community. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 69, 235–240. , &
- 1990b Seasonal variation of thermophilic campylobacters in sewage sludge. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 69, 185–189. , &
- 1990c Thermophilic campylobacters in aquatic habitats around Lancaster, UK: negative correlation with incidence of infection in the community. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 69, 758–764. , &
- 1999 Non-compliance of beaches with the EU Directives of bathing water quality: evidence of non-point sources Of Pollution in Morecambe Bay. Journal of Applied Microbiology Symposium Suppl., in press. &
- 1994 Predicting likelihood of gastro-enteritis from sea bathing: results from randomised exposure. Lancet, 344, 905–909. , , et al.
- 1994 Growth measurements. In: Methods for General and Molecular Bacteriology (eds Gerhardt, P. Murray, R.G.E. Wood, W.A. & Krieg, N.R), pp. 248–292. Washington, D.C. American Society for Microbiology.
- 1984 Salmonella. In: Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Vol. 1, eds. Kreig, N.R. & Holt, J.G. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.
- 1996 First finding of urease-positive thermophilic strains of Campylobacter in river water in the Far East, namely, in Japan, and their phenotypic and genotypic characterisation. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 81, 608–612. , , et al.
- 1992 Clinical and epidemiological features of non-jejuni, non-coli Campylobacter species. In Campylobacter jejuni. Current Status and Future Trends (eds Namchamkin, I. Blaser, M.J. & Tompkins, L.S), pp. 31– 41. Washington: American Society for Microbiology. , &
- 1989 Evaluation of different plating media used in the isolation of salmonellas from environmental samples. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 66, 353–360. , , , , &
- NRA 1996 Bathing Water Quality in England and Wales 1995. National Rivers Authority Water Quality Series No. 27. London: HMSO.
- 1998 The effect of the time of sampling on the compliance of beaches in the North West UK with the EU Directive on bathing water quality. Journal of Coastal Conservation, in press. , &
- 1987 Morecambe Bay: an Assessment of Present Ecological Knowledge. Lancaster University Print Unit. &
- 1986 Viable but non-culturable stage of Campylobacter jejuni and its role in survival in the natural aquatic environment. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 52, 531–538. &
- 1987 Survival strategies of bacteria in the natural environment. Microbiology Review, 51, 365–379. &
- 1984 Viable but non-recoverable stage of Salmonella enteritidis in aquatic systems. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 30, 334–338. , &
- 1987 Enteritis associated with Campylobacter laridis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 25, 10–12. &
- 1997 Risk assessment of Campylobacter species in shellfish: identifying the unknown. Water Science and Technology, 35, 29–34. , , &
- 1994 The presence of Salmonella in coastal North-Sea waters and their hygienic relation to indicator bacteria and sources of contamination. Zentralblatt Fur Hygiene und Umweltmedizin, 195, 495–508. &
- 1983 The Rappaport-Vassiliadis (RV) enrichment medium for the isolation of Salmonellas: an overview. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 54, 69–76.
- 1994 An assessment of the impact of inland surface water input to the bacteriological quality of coastal waters. Journal of the Institution of Water and Environmental Management, 6, 459–467. , , , &
- 1996 Delivery of microbial indicator organisms to coastal waters from catchment sources. Water Science and Technology, 33, 37–50. , , et al.
- 1996 Campylobacters, salmonellas and faecal indicator bacteria in the Lune estuary. In Campylobacters, Helicobacters. And Related Organisms (eds Newell, D.G. Ketley, J.M. & Feldman, R.A), pp. 171–175. New York. Plenum Press. &