• Birch, P.R., Hyman, L.J., Taylor, R., Opio, A.F., Bragard, C., Toth, I.K. 1997 RAPD PCR-based differentiation of Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli and Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli var. Fuscans. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 103, 809 814.
  • De Boer, S.H. & Ward, L.J. 1995 PCR detection of Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica associated with potato tissue. Phytopathology, 85, 854 858.
  • Dye, D.W. 1981 A numerical taxonomic study of the genus Erwinia. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 24, 223 229.
  • Fraaije, B.A., Appels, M., De Boer, S.H., Van Vuurde, J.W.L., Van den Bulk, R.W. 1997 Detection of soft rot Erwinia spp. on seed potatoes: conductivity in comparison with dilution plating, PCR and serological assays. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 103, 183 193.
  • Fréchon, D., Cazelles, O., Exbrayat, P et al. 1998 Evaluation of a PCR kit for the detection of Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica on potato tubers. Potato Research, 41, 163 173.
  • Gorris, M.T., Alarcon, B., Lopez, M.M., Cambra, M. 1994 Characterisation of monoclonal antibodies specific for Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica and comparison of serological methods for its sensitive detection on potato tubers. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 60, 2076 2085.
  • Grimm, F. & Baumann, B. 1991 Studies on the detection of in vitro potato plants by Erwinia carotovora var. atroseptica (van Hall) Dye. Potato Research, 34, 47 55.
  • Helias, V., Le Roux, A.-C., Bertheau, Y., Andrivon, D., Gauthier, J.-P., Jouan, B. 1998 Characterisation of Erwinia carotovora subspecies and detection of Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica in potato plants, soil and water extracts with PCR-based methods. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 104, 685 699.
  • Hyman, L.J., Dewasmes, V., Toth, I.K., Pérombelon, M.C.M. 1997 Improved PCR detection sensitivity of Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica in potato tuber peel extract by prior enrichment on a selective medium. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 25, 143 147.
  • Jeffries, C.J. 1986 The Scottish seed potato classification scheme and the production of nuclear stocks using micropropagation. In: BCPC Mono, No. 33 Symposium on Health Plant Material, pp. 239 247.
  • Jones, D.A.C., Hyman, L.J., Tumeseit, M., Smith, P., Pérombelon, M.C.M. 1994 Blackleg potential of potato seed: determination of tuber contamination by Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica by immunofluorescence colony staining and stock and tuber sampling. Annals of Applied Biology, 124, 557 568.
  • Kwon, S.-W., Go, S.-J., Kang, W.-H., Ryu, J.-C., Jo, J.-K. 1997 Phylogenetic analysis of Erwinia species based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 47, 1061 1067.
  • Maes, M., Garbeva, P., Crepel, C. 1996 Identification and sensitive endophytic detection of the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora with 23S ribosomal DNA-sequences and the polymerase chain reaction. Plant Pathology, 45, 1139 1149.
  • Pérombelon, M.C.M. 1992 Potato blackleg: epidemiology, host–pathogen interaction and control. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology, 98, 135 146.
  • Pérombelon, M.C.M., Bertheau, Y., Cambra, M et al. 1999 Microbiological, immunological and molecular methods suitable for commercial detection and quantification of the blackleg pathogen, Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica, on potato seed tubers: a review. EPPO Bulletin., in press.
  • Pérombelon, M.C.M. & Burnett, E.M. 1991 Two modified crystal violet pectate (CVP) media for the detection, isolation and enumeration of soft rot erwinias. Potato Research, 34, 79 85.
  • Pérombelon, M.C.M. & Hyman, L.J. 1986 A rapid method to identify and quantify softrot erwinias directly from plant material based on their temperature tolerances and sensitivity to erythromycin. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 60, 61 66.
  • Pérombelon, M.C.M. & Hyman, L.J. 1995 Serological methods to quantify potato seed contamination by Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica. EPPO Bulletin, 25, 195 202.
  • Pérombelon, M.C.M. & Kelman, A. 1980 Ecology of the soft rot erwinias. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 18, 361 387.
  • Sambrook, J., Fritsch, E.F., Maniatis, T. 1989 Molecular Cloning: a Laboratory Manual 2nd edn. Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
  • Seal, S.E., Jackson, L.A., Young, J.P.W., Daniels, M.J. 1993 Differentiation of P. solanacearum, P. syzygii, P. picketti and the blood disease bacterium by partial 16S rRNA sequencing: Construction of oligonucleotide primers for sensitive detection by polymerase chain reaction. Journal of General Microbiology, 139, 1587 1594.
  • Smid, E.J., Jansen, A.H.J., Gorris, L.G.M. 1995 Detection of Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica and Erwinia chrysanthemi in potato tubers using polymerase chain reaction. Plant Pathology, 44, 1058 1069.
  • Thompson, J.D., Higgins, D.G., Gibson, T.J. 1994 CLUSTAL W: improving the sensitivity of multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Research, 22, 4673 4680.
  • Toth, I.K., Hyman, L.J., Grevesse, C., Pérombelon, M.C.M. 1996 An update on Erwinia diagnostics. Proceedings, Crop Protection in Northern Britain, Dundee, 2, 331 336.
  • Van der Wolf, J.M., Van Beckhoven, J.R.C.M., Van den Brink, M., De Vries, PH. M. 1996 Verification of immunofluorescence colony staining of Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica by reisolation and immunodiffusion or PCR. EPPO Bulletin, 26, 707 715.
  • Van Vuurde, J.W.L. & Roozen, N.J.M. 1990 Comparison of immunofluorescence colony-staining in media, selective isolation on pectate medium, ELISA and immunofluorescence cell staining for detection of Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica and E. chrysanthemi in cattle manure slurry. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology, 96, 75 89.
  • Weber, J. & Schenk, G. 1988 Symptomless spreading of the soft rot pathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica (van Hall) Dye in potato plants grown in vitro. Archives of Phytopathology Pflanzenschutz, 24, 395 402.