• Anon. (1994) BS EN 1499. Chemical Disinfectants and Antiseptics. Hygienic Handwash. Test Method and Requirement. London: British Standards Institute.
  • Ansari, S.A., Springthorpe, S.V., Sattar, S.A., Tostowaryk, W. & Well, G.A. (1991) Comparison of cloth, paper and warm air drying in eliminating viruses and bacteria from washed hands. American Journal of Infection Control 19, 243249.
  • Blackmore, M.A. (1989) A comparison of hand drying methods. Catering and Health 1, 189198.
  • Blackmore, M.A. & Prisk, E.M. (1984) Is hot air hygienic? Home Economist 4, 1415.
  • Davis, J.G., Blake, J.R., White, D.J. & Woodall, C.M. (1969) The types and numbers of bacteria left on hands after normal washing and drying by various common methods. The Medical Officer 31st October, pp. 235–238.
  • De Wit, J.C. (1985) The importance of hand hygiene in contamination of foods. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 51, 523527.
  • Kerr, K.G., Birkenhead, D., Seale, K., Major, J. & Hawkey, P.M. (1993) Prevalence of Listeria spp. on the hands of food workers. Journal of Food Protection 56, 525527.
  • Knights, B., Evans, C., Barrass, S. & McHardy, B. (1993) Hand Drying; Assessment of Efficiency and Hygiene of Different Methods. Survey by The Applied Ecology Research Group at the University of Westminister, London.
  • Larson, E. (1981) Persistent carriage of Gram-negative bacteria on hands. American Journal of Infection Control 9, 112119.
  • Lowbury, E.J., Thorn, B.T., Lilly, H.A., Babb, J.R. & Whittall, K. (1970) Sources of infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in patients with tracheostomy. Journal of Medical Microbiology 3, 3955.
  • Mathews, J.A. & Newsom, S.W.B. (1987) Hot air electric driers compared with paper towels for the potential spread of airborne bacteria. Journal of Hospital Infection 9, 8588.
  • Meers, P.D. & Leong, K.Y. (1989) Letters to the editor. Journal of Hospital Infection 14, 169181.
  • Meers, P.D. & Yeo, G.A. (1978) Shedding of bacteria and skin squames after handwashing. Journal of Hygiene 81, 8199.
  • Noble, W.C. (1983) In Microbiology Skin Disease: It's Epidemiology. Chapter 2. London: Edward Arnold.
  • Patrick, D.R., Findon, G. & Miller, T.E. (1997) Residual moisture determines the level of touch contact associated bacterial transfer following handwashing. Epidemiology and Infection 119, 319325.
  • Pether, J.V.S. & Gilbert, R.J. (1971). The survival of Salmonellas on finger-tips and transfer of the organisms to foods. Journal of Hygiene 69, 673.
  • Semmelweis, I. & Codell Carter, K. The University of Wisconsin Press, Wisconsin, USA.